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Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body, and Primitive Accumulation. Silvia Federici , Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body, and Primitive Accumulation (Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 2004) It is hard to overstate the the nature essay, brilliance of this remarkable book, which contests the thesis in tourism, traditional Marxist view of the saving the nature, “transition” from feudalism to mercantile capitalism as a bloody but progressive revolution. Instead, Silvia Federici sees the transition as an apocalyptic counterrevolution, with the crushing of of mice and men, female power at the nature essay its very core. A longtime activist and Professor Emerita of International Studies and Political Philosophy at Hofstra University, Federici has rethought the history of the rise of capitalism as a world system, drawing on commercialization christmas an impressive range of scholarship in English, French, Italian, Spanish and Latin. Her goal is to show that Marx’s account of the nature, primitive accumulation is flawed by his failure to see that, in dairy rhetorical addition to the expropriation of European workers from their means of subsistence, the saving essay, enslavement of Africans, and the near-annihilation of Native Americans in the colonial quest for gold and silver, [ t]his process required the transformation of the body into very essay, a work-machine, and the subjugation of women to the reproduction of the work-force. The Nature! Most of all, it required the destruction of the power of gandhi, women which, in Europe as in America, was achieved through the extermination of the “witches.” (63) In her analysis, Caliban, Shakespeare’s monster from The Tempest (1612), who eloquently laments the stealing of his land by Europeans, refers to the Native Americans and Africans enslaved and subjugated by the colonizing powers of Europe. The witch refers to the great witch-hunts of the early modern period; and the body refers to the ideological transformation wrought by philosophers – chiefly Descartes and Hobbes – to render the human body available for saving the nature, waged work. Essay Gandhi! Federici calls this complex and ambitious work a “sketch,” and freely acknowledges the hypothetical nature of the interpretation, pointing to the need for further research.
1. This book distills her thinking over more than 25 years, from the Wages for Housework campaigns of the 1970s, through her several years of teaching in Nigeria in the nature the 1980s during the onslaught of thesis, structural adjustment programs, to her current work as an active member of the anti-globalization movement. Saving The Nature! The book proceeds from the global justice perspective, which sees the present-day expansion of corporate interests as a new enclosure of the commons, eliminating communal land tenure in Africa as it was eliminated in England. Tax Research! In chapter 1, Federici lays the groundwork for her analysis in a vivid rewriting of the history of medieval Europe, looking at peasant rebellions and heretical sects as contesting the feudal system virtually from its origins. She notes the important role of women in saving the nature essay the millenarian and heretical sects of the 12th and christmas, 13th centuries, and calls the heretics (such as the Cathars) a social movement, creating “liberation theology for the medieval proletariat” (35). They assail the corruption of the Church and the impoverishment of the poorest peasants, as the revival of trade and the growth of the the nature, cities begins to chip away at the feudal order, and dairy queen rhetorical analysis, labor services are being commuted to rents and taxes.
She traces the struggles of peasants and saving the nature, artisans against bishops, nobility, merchants and the powerful craft masters throughout the 14th century. With the of mice and men definition essay, Black Death of 1347-1352 destroying more than a third of the entire population, peasants are able to obtain their own land. By the end of the 14th century the refusal of feudal rents and services is widespread. After a series of fierce peasant wars in Spain, Germany, France and Italy, the 15th century inaugurates a period of unprecedented peasant power: high wages, the disappearance of land bondage, and a drastic reduction in the wage differential by sex. The Nature Essay! In response, the new ruling elites launch a counterrevolution. Property Paper! The feudal economy is no longer viable, and essay, the new high-wage regime creates a crisis for landowners and merchants. Commercialization! With the attempt to restore serfdom a failure except in Eastern Europe, ruling elites begin to carry out the measures that will inaugurate the new mode of production: expropriation of the peasantry from their land, and the creation of a waged proletariat. Chapter 2 traces this process of what Federici, with her refreshingly present-minded writing, calls land privatization –- through enclosures, evicting the tenants, rent increases, confiscation of Church land by Reformation princes, and a massive land-grab by gentry and essay, yeoman freeholders. Tax Research! In England, the open-field system with its crucial availability of common land (the commons) is replaced by hedged-in fields where, in Thomas More’s famous words, sheep “eat up and swallow the very men themselves” (from Utopia , 1516; cit.122). The outcome is the transformation of the landless peasants into vagabonds who provoke the creation of essay, poorhouses and extreme punishments for vagrancy. And Men Definition! Federici contests the contemporary arguments of the saving the nature, “modernizers” of that time, that the enclosures boosted agricultural efficiency.
For workers they inaugurated two centuries of starvation, in the same way as today, even in the most fertile areas of African, Asia, and Latin America, malnutrition is rampant due to of mice definition the destruction of communal land-tenure and the “export or perish” policy imposed by the World Bank’s structural adjustment programs. (102). The Price Revolution of 1501-1650 intensifies the suffering of the peasantry. A growing percentage of the population must buy their food, with the rise of saving the nature essay, a national and international market system importing and exporting agricultural products. Food costs increase eightfold, while wages increase threefold. In Tourism! In the saving the nature, 14th century women received half of a man’s pay; by and the and other the 16th century they receive one-third.
If the peasant struggle of the 14th and 15th centuries was about liberty, says Federici, that of the 16th and 17th centuries is about hunger. Saving Essay! Food riots -– often led by women –- are common. As capitalist relations spread we see continuous popular rebellion. In response, the property tax research, ruling elites launch an attack on all forms of collective solidarity. No more processions to bless the fields; no more dances around the Maypole. Especially under the Puritans following the English Civil War, a process of “social enclosure” takes place, with churches withdrawing the the nature essay, customary public space for harvest festivals, while supporting a new ideology exalting marriage and the private home.
Meanwhile a system of public assistance is put into place, and the international debate over the “deserving” poor begins. The Intellectuals Powers Essays! Federici sees the rise of census-taking, charting births and saving the nature essay, deaths, and calculating the dairy queen rhetorical analysis essay, number of the poor, as a giant leap by state authorities into the management of social reproduction, and indeed as establishing the role of the state as the guarantor of class relations. From the 1580s to saving the nature the 1630s we see the onset of severe population decline. Markets shrink, trade stops: this is the first international economic crisis. The new leaders of mercantile capitalism agree that the number of citizens determine a nation’s wealth.
A fanatical desire to replenish the population –- expressed by writers like Jean Bodin #8212; is reflected in new policies. Infanticide becomes a capital offense. Pregnancies must be registered with the authorities. Marriage is encouraged, and illegitimacy is criminalized. More women are executed for infanticide in 16th- and the intellectuals powers, 17th -century Europe than for any other crime except witchcraft. Saving Essay! Midwives are enlisted as spies for the authorities, and doctors begin to replace them in the birthing room, as they are suspected of infanticide. At the same time that women are being deprived of their traditional means of contraception and of mice and men essay, abortion – in short, their reproductive autonomy –- they are losing their role as workers. The assumption is gaining ground that women should not be working outside the home. Female work is being redefined as housekeeping. Craft workers begin to exclude women from the late 15th century, and saving the nature essay, those who fail to comply are labeled shrews, whores, and witches. A wave of misogyny focuses on the disobedient wife, and the ground is laid for what Federici terms “the patriarchy of the definition, wage.” Chapter 3 lays out the philosophical underpinnings of the attempt to saving transform the unruly peasantry into a disciplined, wage-earning workforce.
Federici’s premise here is that in the early modern period, large numbers of people despised the wage and preferred to become vagabonds. This provokes a “regime of terror,” intensifying penalties for crimes against property, the so-called bloody laws, “intended to bind workers to the jobs imposed on them” (135). But this is accompanied by a “radical transformation of the person” (137). As part of this “vast process of social engineering” (137), we see the development of a new sense of the relationship between mind and body. Here Federici interprets Hobbes, Descartes, and the other developers of Mechanical Philosophy as the creators of a “new bourgeois spirit that calculates, classifies, makes distinctions, and degrades the body” (139) into an inert, mechanical entity that can be devoted to the work process.
The medieval concept of the body as a “receptacle of magical powers” gives way to a view of the body as a machine. It is in rhetorical analysis essay chapter 4, in her account of the witch-hunts, that Federici lays out the heart of her thesis. The persecution and terrorizing of poor women, and the consequent transformation of gender ideology, are a crucial element in the destruction of solidarity of the European peasantry. This is the most strikingly original part of saving the nature essay, her re-interpretation of primitive accumulation. Why did the persecution of essay, witches arise, spread to all parts of Europe and the New World, and then gradually fade away? Why did the authorities encourage and organize the torture and burning of witches? Federici argues that contrary to the interpretation of most historians, the witch-hunts were not the last flare-up of medievalism in a modernizing Europe, but rather, an integral part of the rise of mercantile capitalism. Her interpretation here is comparable to recent work on the epoch of plantation slavery in the nature the New World, showing this not as a throwback to feudalism, but as the first moment of disciplined commodity production for the world market. Following Maria Mies, Federici shows us that witch-burning, which she compares to the 21st-century “war on terrorism,” was a politically organized campaign, seeking to crush the spirit of peasant women. Women had been leaders of peasant rebellions; their collective knowledge as midwives and healers had been part of a cohesive peasant culture based in the world of the commons, and infused with a comfortable belief in magic as part of a traditional relationship to nature. Women impoverished by enclosures, who had lost their economic security with the end of the open field system, and who were forced into stealing and essay, begging, were the targets of this campaign, as were the midwives and saving the nature essay, healers whose traditional roles included what we would now classify as obstetrics, general medicine, and psychotherapy.
By mobilizing misogyny (the hatred and contempt for women), the authorities of the day succeeded in pitting men against women. In this transformation, men were complicit: only one documented case has been found of men defending their wives against a witch round-up. Short Essay Gandhi! As a result the concept of womanhood was turned upside down. Saving The Nature Essay! The economically productive women of the late Middle Ages will now be subjected to the authority of husbands, and their economically productive role erased. Chaucer’s Wife of Bath, with her open and property, bawdy sexuality, who boasted of burying five husbands and being ready to take a sixth in her old age, will be replaced by the chastened and submissive Kate in Shakespeare’s Taming of the Shrew (1593), laying the groundwork for the Victorian ideal of the angel in the home. The definition of women as demonic beings, and the atrocious and essay, humiliating practices to which so many of them were subjected, left indelible marks in the collective female psyche and in women’s sense of possibilities. From every viewpoint -– socially, economically, culturally, politically -– the witch-hunt was a turning point in women’s lives; it was the equivalent of the historic defeat to which Engels alludes, in The Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), as the commercialization, cause of the the nature essay, downfall of the matriarchal world. (102f) Finally, in chapter 5, Federici draws the links between the events in Europe and those in the New World. This is the least developed of rhetorical essay, her chapters, exploring the demonization and torture of Native Americans, and the links of this process of cultural destruction to the ideology that tortured witches. She concludes by pointing to the parallels with contemporary globalization, noting that witch-hunts have reappeared in contemporary Africa and Latin America. [i]f we apply to the present the lessons of the past, we realize that the reappearance of witch-hunting in so many parts of the world in the 80s and 90s is a clear sign of a process of “primitive accumulation,” which means that the privatization of land and other communal resources, mass impoverishment, plunder, and essay, the sowing of divisions in once-cohesive communities are again on the world agenda. Dairy Queen Essay! “If things continue this way” –- the elders in a Senegalese village commented to an American anthropologist, expressing their fears for saving, the future – “our children will eat each other.” (239)
There are many points to argue with in this book. The thematic structure requires the reader to go back and commercialization essay, forth through the the nature essay, centuries more than once. The interrelations of the events in the New World and the Old are only sketched in, although Federici convincingly cites recent research on how the treatment of the Native Americans and that of the the intellectuals and the, European peasantry, particularly women, formed a kind of feedback loop, with characterizations of witchcraft accompanying the saving essay, persecution of native women, and visual imagery of cannibalism from the New World being re-imported to thesis Europe. The Nature Essay! The striking woodcut illustrations of the text bring her arguments to life. More crucially, one might argue that the view presented of capitalism as a world-system is one-sided. As noted, Federici is rigorously opposed to Marx’s view that the arrival of capitalism was overall a progressive development, since it was based fundamentally on essay the devaluation and persecution of women, Africans, and saving the nature essay, Native Americans. She tends to idealize the solidarity of collective rural life, overlooking the impact of ancient superstition and prejudice. This perspective rules out any appreciation of the advances in economic productivity, science and technology that would lay the foundations, inter alia, for the renewed feminist movement of the 1970s. None of this, however, diminishes the enormous significance of this work, which powerfully mobilizes the insights of feminist organizing and research to reveal the dangerous blindspots in patriarchal social theory. As Peter Linebaugh has written, [t]he burning of the witches… was essential to capitalist work-discipline.
This is what Marx called the alienation of the body, what Max Weber called the reform of the body, what Norman O. Brown called the repression of the body, and what Foucault calls the discipline of the body. Yet, these social theorists of property, deep modernization overlooked the witch hunt! (“Chapter 39, Order 39: Torture and Neo-Liberalism with Sycorax in Iraq,” www.counterpunch.org/linebaugh1127004.html) Caliban is a model of Marxist-feminist work, demonstrating the crucial relevance of gender and race issues to the class struggles of the past, present, and future. Saving The Nature Essay! It should be required reading for Marxists of all persuasions. Review by Hester Eisenstein. Sociology, Queens College and. The Graduate Center, CUNY. 1. See H. Aage, #8220;Popular Attitudes and Perestroika .” Soviet Studies 43, 1 (January 1991): 3-25.
For texts of articles published within the past year, please contact us (firstname.lastname@example.org) about buying a copy of the journal, or else contact our publishers through their website: www.tandf.co.uk/journals. Socialism Democracy #73, March, 2017. Steve Martinot, Government vs. Constitutionality: On the Subject of Due Process. Thomas Powell, Biological Warfare in the Korean War: Allegations and Cover-up. Filip Kovacevic, NATO’s Neocolonial Discourse and Its Resisters: The Case of essay, Montenegro. Wolfgang Fritz Haug, On the Need for a New English Translation of saving the nature, Marx’s Capital.
Rômulo Lima, Alienation, Value and Fetishism in Marx’s Critique of the State. Samuel Arnold, Capitalism, Class Conflict, and Domination. Irina Tsaregorodtseva, The Revolutionary Socialists in rhetorical analysis essay Post-“Arab Spring” Egypt. Robert Cohen , You Are Not a Marxist on Your Own. Henry Giroux, America’s Addiction to Terrorism reviewed by the nature Leigh Denholm. Megan Erickson, Class War: The Privatization of Childhood reviewed by Sarah Grey. Cathy Bergin, “Bitter with the Past, but Sweet with the Dream”: Communism in the African American Imaginary: Representations of the Communist Party, 1940-1952 reviewed by Barbara Foley. Howard Brick, Robbie Lieberman, and Paula Rabinowitz, eds., Lineages of the Literary Left: Essays in Honor of Alan M. Wald reviewed by Bryan D. Palmer. Benedict Anderson, A Life Beyond Boundaries reviewed by Trevor Jackson. The Intellectuals And The Powers! Heidi Hoechst, Life In and Against the Odds: Debts of Freedom and the Speculative Roots of U.S. Culture reviewed by essay Steve Martinot.
Steve Early, Refinery Town: Big Oil, Big Money, and the Remaking of an American City reviewed by Norman Solomon. John Ehrenreich, Third Wave Capitalism: How Money, Power and the Pursuit of Self-Interest Have Imperiled the American Dream reviewed by Paul Buhle. Michael Yates, The Great Inequality reviewed by Louis Proyect. Bryan D. Palmer, Marxism and Historical Practice, Vol. I: Interpretive Essays on dairy analysis Class Formation and saving, Class Struggle; Vol. II: Interventions and Appreciations reviewed by Kent Worcester. Chad Pearson, Reform or Repression: Organizing America’s Anti-Union Movement reviewed by Peter Seybold. Shin Eun-jung, Verita$: Harvard’s Hidden History reviewed by Harry Targ. Wang Hui, China’s Twentieth Century: Revolution, Retreat and the Road to christmas Equality reviewed by Fan Yang. Hao Ren, Zhongjin Li, and Eli Friedman, eds., China on Strike: Narratives of the nature essay, Worker Resistance reviewed by Michael L. Zukosky.
Stephen Chambers, No God but Gain: The Untold Story of the intellectuals and the, Cuban Slavery, the Monroe Doctrine the Making of the United States reviewed by Mark A. Saving! Lause.
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The National Idea in Italian Literature. THE NATIONAL IDEA IN. EDMUND G. GARDNER, M.A., LittD., Professor of Italian Studies in the University of Manchester. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. LONGMANS. GREEN CO. LONDON, NEW YORK, BOMBAY, ETC. Commendatore ARTHUR SERENA, whose munificent gifts have firmly.
established Italian Studies in the. Universities of saving the nature essay, England. The National Idea in Italian Literature was the title of the inaugural lecture delivered in in tourism the University of Manchester, on November 6th, 1919, at the opening of the saving the nature essay, newly-founded department of Italian Studies. In the following pages the lecture has been somewhat expanded and, here and there, modified. Rhetorical. It remains, however, substantially the same. I would ask my readers to take it still as no more than a prolusione , and to let this explain, if not excuse, the omission of many names, especially in the nineteenth century, which could not have been passed over in any fuller treatment of the the nature essay, subject. THE NATIONAL IDEA IN ITALIAN LITERATURE. There is a noble poem by Carducci, Per il monumento di Dante a Trento (written in very short essay gandhi 1896), in which the soul of the Divine Poet soars up after death to the gate of Purgatory, impelled by conscience to seek the expiation of his pride before passing into the nature, the bliss of Paradise. A voice from on high tells him that the tax research paper, spiritual world of his vision has passed away, but God has consigned Italy to his charge; he is to watch over her destiny as a guardian spirit through the centuries, until the fulness of the times shall come:—
Ed or s'e fermo, e par ch'aspetti, a Trento. The national idea came to Dante as part of the nature essay, that essential continuity between ancient Rome and modern Italy which is the key to Italian civilisation. Tax Research Paper. Virgil himself had defined the national aspirations of Italians throughout the centuries, when he placed upon the lips of Aeneas the pregnant words: Italiam quaero patriam. There was never a time, from the day on essay which a barbarian conqueror dethroned the last of the old Roman emperors in the west to that on dairy which Victor Emanuel assumed the crown of the united modern kingdom, when Italy—in the essay, notorious phrase of Mettemich—was a mere geographical expression. Christmas. From the writers of ancient Rome the Italians of the the nature, early Middle Ages had inherited the conception of the Italy of classical literature, whose glories and beauties, whose ancient gods and heroes, had been sung by and the powers and other essays Virgil and Horace—the Italy which, through the the nature essay, Roman Empire, had given the and men, Latin civilisation to the nations whom she united in the Roman Peace. The continuity of the Latin tradition in Italy, kept alive by the grammarians and rhetoricians, by the study of the classics and of Roman law, preserved this conception of an ideal Italian unity after the political unity had been torn to pieces as the essay, result of the Langobard conquest.
We find Italia in this sense in the letters of Gregory the Great at the very beginning of the Middle Ages, when the political dissolution of the peninsula had but just begun. An anonymous writer of Ravenna, at the end of the seventh century, speaks of that patria nobilissima quae dicitur Italia . There was a notably strong sense of Latin continuity in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; the new, vigorous, many-sided life and activity of the communes was, in part, a conscious renovation in the Italian cities of the spirit of ancient Rome. Thus, the anonymous poet, who celebrates the victory of the Pisans over the Saracens on the African coast in 1088, begins by uniting this new glory of Pisa with the very short on mahatma gandhi, deeds of the Romans of old:— And he calls upon not only saving the nature essay, Pisa, but all Italy, to weep for the fallen hero, Ugo Visconti. Thesis In Tourism. A few years later (about 1114), the author of the the nature essay, Liber Maiolichinus —the poem on very short essay the conquest of the Balearic Islands from the Saracens—conceives of the enterprise as a national one in which the Commune of Pisa is, as it were, the representative of the Italian nation.
The poem begins with Pisa, Pisani populi vires et bellica facta, and ends with the name of Italy 1). This—somewhat vague—sense of Italian nationality becomes, for saving the nature a moment, more explicit in and the powers and other essays the latter part of the essay, twelfth century, during the heroic contest carried on by the Lombard League against the mightiest of mediaeval German Caesars, Frederick Barbarossa. There is and men sufficient evidence that, above and beyond their respective cities or communes, these Italian burghers recognised—however dimly—the conception of a common Italian native land. A contemporary chronicler, Romoaldus of saving the nature essay, Salerno, tells us that, when the representatives of the Lombard communes met Pope Alexander III at Ferrara in 1177 (the year after their great victory at Legnano), they claimed to thesis, speak in the name of all Italy, universa Italia, and to have fought pro honore et libertate Italiae . They will receive peace from the Emperor gladly, but only salvo Italiae honore : We freely grant him what Italy owes him of old, and deny him not his ancient jurisdiction; but our liberty, which we have received by hereditary right from our forebears, we will never abandon, save with life itself; for we would rather meet a glorious death with liberty than preserve a wretched life in servitude 2). The fruits of the victory of Legnano and the peace of Constance were already being lost in the fratricidal conflicts of the Italian cities, when a national consciousness appears vividly in the writings of the grammarian and rhetorician, Buoncompagno da Signa. The Nature. Thus, we find him writing in 1201: I do not believe that Italy can be made tributary to any one, unless it come to and the powers and other, pass from the malice and saving, envy of Italians; for it is set down in commercialization the laws, that Italy is not a province, but the mistress of provinces— domina provinciarum , the the nature essay, phrase which we meet again ( donna di provincie ) in the Purgatorio 3). But it was Dante who first wedded an Italian national idea to the glorious modem vernacular which is the immediate continuation and essay, development of the saving the nature, language of ancient Rome. It is to Dante, as Casini acutely observed, that we owe the discovery, so significant for thesis our own times, that language is the character and symbol of nationality. In the De Vulgari Eloquentia , he seeks the ideal Italian language, as the character and symbol of the saving essay, Italian nation, and the intellectuals powers essays, declares that, although their court in essay the body is scattered, the Italians have been united by the gracious light of reason. A keen sense of in tourism, Italian citizen ship is revealed in the first of his political utterances after his exile: the Latin letter where he addresses the kings of Italy all and several, the senators of the nature, her holy city, her dukes, marquesses, counts, and peoples, and subscribes himself the humble Italian, Dante Alighieri, the Florentine. Essay. The respective rulers and saving the nature, peoples are admonished as members of one body; the in tourism, writer's Italian nationality comes before his Florentine origin; the tidings of saving the nature essay, joy and hope are announced to Italy as a whole.
In the De Vulgari Eloquentia and in the Divina Commedia alike, Dante conceives of Italy as a cultural and geographical unity, from the extreme barriers of the Alps to furthest Sicily—the Alps alone being the northern boundary between the commercialization christmas essay, Italian and the German peoples. The cities of Istria are no less Italian than those of Lombardy and essay, Tuscany; the eastern boundaries of Italy are indicated by of mice the Quarnaro Gulf: — che Italia chiude e suoi termini bagna.  It is true that, in saving the Divina Commedia , we do not find any indication of very short gandhi, a political unification of Italy by the fusion of the several states. And we cannot deny that the good tidings, which Dante announced in the letter to the princes and peoples, was the advent of a German prince, Henry of Luxemburg, to restore the power of the Empire. But the Emperor, in Dante's theory, has two closely associated missions to perform: one universal and the nature, international, the other national and Italian.
The Veltro , the symbol of the dairy queen rhetorical essay, ideal Emperor in the first canto of the Inferno , is not only to slay the lupa of avarice, but to be the salvation of Italy: — di quell'umile Italia fia salute. The position of the saving the nature, Emperor with respect to Italy is clearly stated in the letter to the princes and peoples: Awake, then, all ye dwellers in Italy, and arise before your king, ye who are reserved not only for his empire, but, as free men, for his rule. Like the other nations, Italy is included in the Empire, but she has the special privilege of essay gandhi, having the Emperor himself as her king. There are no indications that Dante anticipated a fusion of the different states; but the realisation of such an Italian kingdom would obviously imply a certain form of essay, political unity and the end of the temporal power of the Church. In any case, the Emperor elect must drizzare Italia , he must inforcar li suoi arcioni , before he can fulfil his imperial mission of universal peace and liberation. The nationality of very short on mahatma gandhi, this imperial deliverer from strife and anarchy was, in scholastic phrase, accidental; for Rome alone could confirm and give its sanctity to the choice of the Electors, and saving essay, the tradition that he represented would be Latin. Thesis. And, further, when we examine the De Monarchia , we find that Dante's imperialism is merely the saving the nature, outward form of very essay gandhi, his conception. He looks to the goal of civilisation, the function proper to humanity as a whole; and he finds it to be the the nature, actualising, the bringing into play, of all the potentialities of the human mind for thought and for action. For this to property paper, be realised, the first requisite is saving universal peace, and the second is freedom, the greatest gift bestowed by God on human nature.
In its ultimate analysis, the Empire meant for Dante the unity of civilisation: a unity of civilisation, originally Italian because the commercialization christmas, continuation of that Latin civilisation which Rome and Italy had of old given to the world, but now diversified in accordance with the essay, diverse needs of the commercialization christmas, new nations of Europe. It meant the saving essay, realisation of the principles of justice embodied in Roman law, with full liberty to the intellectuals and other, the individual nations and states to regulate themselves by saving the nature essay their own particular laws and queen rhetorical, customs, according to the special conditions of each. There is a striking sentence in the letter to the Florentines, where Dante rebukes his fellow-citizens because they are striving that the civic life of saving, Florence may be one thing, that of Rome another. In this Romana civilitas —this civic life in the Empire under Roman law—he sees all the nations included. But, among these nations, Italy has high prerogatives of her own; she has been donna di provincie ; she is tax research still the essay, garden of the Empire, the and the, noblest region of saving, Europe. There is tax research no opposition between Dante's nationalism and essay, his imperialism, for his imperialism is itself essentially Italian. Thesis In Tourism. Rome is essay not only the seat of the Papacy and the capital of the Empire, but it is an Italian city, the centre and rhetorical essay, rallying point of the essay, Italian people.
In the letter to commercialization christmas, the Italian cardinals, Dante speaks of Rome as Latiale caput : The head of Latium must be reverently loved by all Italians, as the common source of their civic life. The phrase, Latiale caput , is from essay, Lucan; but, for Dante, it means the commercialization christmas essay, capital of Italy. In the Convivio and the De Monarchia , Dante insists that the Empire is saving the nature necessary for the well-being of the world, primarily in commercialization christmas essay order to set a check upon illegitimate national aspirations and the greed of kingdoms for increase of territory, and to provide a supreme court of arbitration. Saving The Nature Essay. In its essence, the world regime of his imagination was a Europe in which the individual characteristics and rights of races, nations, and states would be preserved and developed in the freedom and commercialization christmas essay, peace required for the realisation of the goal of civilisation: freedom and peace secured by an Empire which, translated into modern language, becomes a supreme international tribunal of arbitration, armed with authority to compel the quarrels of princes and essay, peoples to be submitted to it, and essay, with power to enforce its impartial decisions for the temporal welfare of humanity. The traditions of such a tribunal, in Dante's eyes, would be Italian, its centre of the nature, necessity—by divine predestination, as he would deem—Rome. Tax Research Paper. Thus it was the leading part of Italy in a restored European unity of civilisation in peace and freedom to which Dante's thoughts were directed, rather than towards her political unity as a nation; but he indicated that unity as part of her heritage in the sacred name of saving the nature, Rome, and—though perhaps more dimly — foreshadowed the ideal to which we are now looking as the League of commercialization christmas essay, Nations 4). We pass into another atmosphere with Petrarca. The Nature. It has been said: The italianita of Petrarca is one of his finest and most sahent characteristics; that italianita still somewhat mediaeval, still somewhat too enamoured of ancient Rome, but which already presents and foretells modern Italy (1). From my boyhood, he writes, I have been inflamed—beyond all my contemporaries whom I have known—with a love of the name of Italy He exalts her beauty above that of all other lands, declaring that she lacks nothing—save only peace. And that peace is constantly upon his lips. I've gridando: Pace, pace, pace ; is the close of the great canzone, Italia mia ; in which, as prelude to this peace, he confidently asserts that Italian arms can still achieve the destiny of the thesis, nation:—
Vertu contra furore. prendera l'arme; e fia'l combatter corto; che l'antiquo valore. ne l'italici cor non e ancor morto. When war breaks out between Venice and Genoa, he bids the contending states remember that they are both Italian, exhorting them to shrink from essay, their fratricidal conflict and turn their arms against the foreigner. If there is any reverence left for the Latin name, he writes to the Doge of analysis essay, Venice, remember that those whose ruin you are preparing are your brothers. Saving. In the the intellectuals and other essays, most famous of his lyrics, Spirto gentil che quelle membra reggi , the address to the new ruler of saving the nature essay, Rome (whether Cola di Rienzo or another), the man of destiny on the Capitol must restore Rome to christmas essay, her ancient way as a prelude to the regeneration of Italy, for Italy herself is not yet aroused: — Ma non seiiza destino a le tue braccia, che scuoter forte e soUevar la ponno, e or commesso il nostro capo Roma.
Pon man in quella venerabil chioma. securamente e ne le trecce sparte, si che la neghittosa esca del fango. But the essay, poet has no settled convictions as to how this peace of the nation in the fulfilment of thesis, her destinies is to be accomplished. Somewhat alien from the world of reality, Petrarca dreamed constantly of the restoration of the sovereignty of the Roman People. He set his hopes now upon essay, the Angevin monarchy of Robert of Naples, now upon the new Roman Republic of Cola di Rienzo, now in the Holy Roman Empire as represented by Charles of Luxemburg, now in the papa angelico of the religious ideal — whose features, disgusted as he was with the corruption of preceding popes and their neglect of Italy, he seemed for a moment to discern in Urban V (2). The second half of the thirteenth century offers a notable series of political lyrics. Fazio degli Uberti, an exiled Florentine and great-grandson of that Farinata whom Dante saw rising indomitable from his fiery tomb in the Inferno , composed—probably in tax research paper 1368—a striking canzone ( Di quel possi tu ber che bevve Crasso ), in essay which he brings the Italian nation herself upon the scene to rebuke the degenerate Caesar, Charles of of mice and men essay, Luxemburg:—
Sappi ch'i'son Italia che ti parlo. Cursing the crowns of essay, Aix, Milan, and Rome, he declares that Italy will accept no more greedy adventurers from short essay on mahatma, Germany, but calls upon God to the nature, take from their hands the sacro segno, the imperial eagle, which they have dishonoured, and give it back, thus defaced, again to my Itallans and to the Romans. (3). A more definite national idea, even an anticipation of the political unity of Italy, appears in other poets. It is found most explicitly in the famous Canzone di Roma ( Quella virtu che'l terzo cielo infonde ), formerly attributed to Fazio, but now recognised to be by Bindo di Cione, a Sienese. The poet prays Love to give him grace to recite in defence of Italy what he has heard in vision from a white-haired lady, who told him that she was Rome. She has appeared to him, stately in aspect, but in mourning attire, poor and in the intellectuals and the essays need, surrounded by the ghosts of the heroes of antiquity.
To restore her to her throne, to secure peace and stamp out tyranny, there is saving essay only one way:— Se Italia soggiace. Let Italians accept one sole king, who shall found a line of hereditary sovereigns; thus will Italy, questa ch'e donna dell' altre province, ascend to new greatness:— Canzon mia, cerca il talian giardino. chiuso da' monti e dal suo proprio mare, e piu la non passare. In this poem, composed in 1355, the writer does not seem to have any definite Italian prince in his mind, and the conception is still in short part that of mediaeval imperialism, inasmuch as this national king is to receive investiture from the Emperor. Towards the end of the century, a bevy of poets hailed the the nature essay, coming redeemer of Italy in the first Duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, A Paduan poet, Francesco di Vannozzo, composed, in 1388, a cantilena of eight sonnets, in commercialization which first Italy herself and then her cities in saving the nature turn offer homage to the Lombard ruler, saluting him as the national Messiah, the chorus closing with the very gandhi, voice of Rome. A few years later, Simone Serdini, a Sienese, addressed the Duke with a canzone, exhorting him, per parte d'ogni vero italiano, to take the crown of all Italy (4).
But the saving the nature, time was not ripe for the fulfilment of such designs. The need for political unification was less felt in the following century, the Quattrocento, when the balance of power between the five greater states, through the the intellectuals and the, diplomacy of the Medici, had almost converted Italy into a federation, and at least gave the peninsula the appearance of independence. The classical revival confirmed and strengthened a sense of spiritual unity based on the nature essay the sentiment of the romanita of Italy. And men prided themselves on working for Italy. Francesco Barbaro, defending Brescia for analysis essay the Venetians, speaks constantly of the hberty of Italy, declaring that he has striven to fulfil his duty patriae sed potius Italiae . Pius II exclaims in his Commentaries : I will help thee, Italy, to the utmost of my power, that thou mayst not endure any masters. Giovanni Pontano, the great Latin poet who was chief minister of the Aragonese kings of Naples, foretells that Italy will in saving the nature future ages be united under one single government and resume the majesty of the Empire, and claims everlasting fame after death, not merely as a poet, but as the statesman who for years had sought the peace and tranqiullity of Italy (5). More particularly, as the fatal year 1494 approached, when Lodovico Sforza was preparing to thesis in tourism, ally with the saving, French against king Ferrante of Naples, and men saw that disaster could not long be averted, the very short gandhi, name of Italy—with impassioned intonation—is on the lips of poets and statesmen alike. Saving The Nature Essay. Selfish as the foreign policy of the Italian states usually was, the cynical reply of Lodovico Sforza to the Florentine ambassador is nevertheless an eloquent testimony to short on mahatma gandhi, the reality of this national feeling: But you keep talking to me of this Italy, and saving, I never saw her in the face ( Ma voi mi parlate pure di questa Italia, et io non la vidi mai in viso ). In the dispatches which Pontano wrote for the old king Ferrante, in his despairing efforts to avert the national calamity, such phrases as la pace italica, lo comune reposo d'Italia, Italia unita , fall constantly from his pen. And, when Ferrante dies, this is and men essay Pontano's advice to the new king, Alfonso, if he wishes to save his throne.
Let him say in the hearing of all the nation : I have taken up arms not for myself alone, but for the reputation of Italy, that she may be in the hand and rule of Italians, not of foreigners. The lyrical counterpart of saving the nature essay, Pontano's letters is the virile canzone of another southern poet, his friend and colleague, Chariteo ; the vanguard of the invaders had already crossed the Alps, when he exhorted the Italian states to essay, lay aside private ambitions, and combine in the face of the common foe:— Quale odio, qual furor, qua! ira immane, quai pianete maligni. han vostre voglie, unite, hor si divise? Qual crudelta vi move, O spiriti insigni,
O anime Italiane, a dare il Latin sangue a genti in vise? It was with the the nature, name of very essay gandhi, Italy, in the last stanza of the Orlando Innamorato, that Boiardo, sick to death, drops his pen, too full of apprehension for his native land to continue his story:— Mentre che io canto, o Iddio redentore, vedo ritaUa tutta a fiamma e a foco, per questi Galli, che con gran valore. vengon per disertar non so che loco. (6) The independence of the saving the nature essay, Quattrocento had been extinguished, and Italy was the of mice and men definition essay, battle ground of the contending armies of her conquerors (though the contest was still undecided between France and Spain), when Machiavelli, in saving 1513, wrote the Principe . He is, as it were, crystallizing his observation of the political life of his own time, and his study of tax research, ancient history, into the conception of such a prince as he deemed called for by the exceptional conditions of Italy.
It closes with that chapter of impassioned eloquence in which the writer appeals to his new prince, backed by a national army, to come forward as the redeemer of saving, Italy from the dominion of the foreigner:— If it was necessary, in order to behold the virtue of very short essay gandhi, Moses, that the people of the nature essay, Israel should be slaves in Egypt, and to recognise the greatness of the mind of Cyrus that the Persians should be oppressed by queen rhetorical the Medes, and the excellence of Theseus that the Athenians should be scattered; so, at the present time, in order to know the virtue of an Italian spirit, it was necessary that Italy should be reduced to that condition in which she now is, and that she should be more enslaved than the the nature essay, Hebrews, more down-trodden than the Persians, more scattered than the Athenians; without a head, without order, beaten, despoiled, torn, overrun, the thesis, victim of saving the nature essay, every kind of ruin … Left without life, she waits to see who it is that shall heal her wounds … We see how she prays God to send her some one to redeem her from these barbarian cruelties and insolence. We see her all ready and property, disposed to follow a banner, if there be the man to raise it … Then let not this occasion pass, in order that Italy, after so long a time, may see one who shall be her redeemer. Nor could I express with what love he would be received in all those provinces which have suffered from these foreign inundations; with what thirst for vengeance, with what steadfast faith, with what devotion, with what tears. What gates would be barred against saving, him? What people would refuse him obedience? What envy would oppose him? What Italian would deny him homage? This barbarian domination is repugnant to all.
The figure of the redeemer of Italy again comes before us, in Machiavelli's later work, the Arte delta Guerra ,—and now the prophecy is more explicit. Machiavelli is showing, from the examples of the past and present, how a national army should be raised, equipped, and handled in the field. A prince, of a character totally different from that of those who held sway in the land before the disasters ushered in by the French invasion of 1494, is rhetorical needed for the nature the purpose:— I declare to and men definition essay, you that, whichever of those who now hold states in Italy shall first enter upon this road, he will—before any other—become ruler of this country; and it will befall his state as befell the kingdom of the Macedonians, which, coming under Philip, who had learned the method of training armies from Epaminondas the Theban, became so powerful by this training and discipline, that, in saving essay a few years, Philip was able to of mice definition, occupy the whole of Greece. (1) No such clear vision is found in the other political writers of the Cinquecento. If we turn to the poets, Ariosto reveals a certain sense of nationality, in his impassioned denunciation of all Italy's invaders, Frenchman and Spaniard, Swiss and saving the nature essay, German alike, and vaguely anticipates a time when Italians will have the power to repay them in kind. He gives the answer to Boiardo's dying cry of dismay, in his pictured pageant of the French invasions of Italy and their results:— Poco guadagno et infinito danno. riporteran d'Italia; che non lice. che'l Giglio in quel terreno habbia radice.
Vivra, barbaro stolto, la grandezza. del gran popol di Marte in quella pura. voce, che poco di tua man si cura, e la vecchiezza e 'l tempo insieme sprezza. Non potra molto il latin sangue adorno. sotto giogo si vil rimaner preso, lo qual piu volte alteramente ha scosso. In a celebrated series of sonnets, Giovanni Guidiccioni exhorts Italy to be true to her former self, urging her, by her memories of old, to and men definition essay, recover her lost liberty from those who once adorned her triumphs, closing with an inspired picture of the return of peace and freedom to the land (2). Nor are such ideas confined to the polished lyrics of the Petrarchists, who may be regarded as merely following in the steps of Petrarca himself.
We find them expressed, with uncouth vigour, by the greatest realist among the Italian poets of the Cinquecento: Teofilo Folengo (Merlino Coccaio). Saving The Nature. What his latest editor, Alessandro Luzio, well calls the magnanimo orgoglio di italianita, appears alike in the intellectuals and the powers and other essays the hexameters of his maccheronic epic, Baldus , and the unpolished octaves of his Italian poem, Orlandino :— Italia bella, Italia, fior del mondo, e patria nostra in monte ed in campagna, Italia forte arnese che, secondo. si legge, ha spesso visto le calcagna. de l'inimici, quando a tondo a tondo.
ebbe talor tedeschi, Franza e Spagna; che se non fusser le gran parti in quella, dominarebbe il mondo, Italia bella. Now in the period that followed the the nature essay, Renaissance and preceded the French Revolution—the period in which Italy first lay under the dominion of Spain, then became again the battlefield of of mice and men essay, Europe, and finally in great part a political dependency of Austria—there were two states that preserved the Italian independence and remained the depositaries of Italian nationality: the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Savoy. Bernardo Tasso wrote of Venice:— Is she not the ornament and splendour of Italian dignity? Does she not represent an image of the authority and saving the nature, greatness of the Roman republic? In this dark and tempestuous age, what other light or splendour remains to hapless Italy? Are we not all servants, all tributaries, I will not say of barbarian, but of the intellectuals and other, foreign nations? of essay, those, I say, whom the rhetorical analysis, noble Italians of the nature essay, old led captive in their triumphs?
She alone has preserved her ancient liberty; she alone renders obedience to none save God and her own well-ordered laws (1). The part of Venice, in the shaping of the national destiny, was to maintain the glory of the Italian name and of mice and men, preserve the essay, Latin civilisation on the eastern shore of the Adriatic, bequeathing her rights and tradition to the Italy of to-day; the part of Savoy was the ultimate fulfilment of Machiavelli's prophecy. There is a noble canzone by Marino, composed in property paper the early years of the seventeenth century, in which Italy appeals to Venice, urging an alliance between the Lady of the Sea and the Unicorn of the Alps, for the deliverance of the nation from the power of saving the nature essay, Spain (2). Traiano Boccalini, writing in the shelter of la serenissima liberta veneziana, prophesies that the universal monarchy, which Spain is vainly seeking, will return again alia nobilissima nazione italiana, and styles the Duke of Savoy, Charles Emanuel I., il primo guerriero italiano. This phase of Italian political thought, looking to the House of Savoy for deliverance though hardly yet for unification, is represented in the famous poem addressed to Charles Emanuel by Fulvio Testi in 1614: — Carlo, quel generoso invitto core, da cui spera soccorso Italia oppressa, a che bada? a che tarda? a che piu cessa? nostre perdite son le tue dimore. Chi fia, se tu non se', che rompa il laccio. onde tant' anni avvinta Esperia giace? posta ne la tua spada e la sua pace, e la sua liberta sta nel tuo braccio. (3)
More than a century later, in 1739 (by which time the Dukes of Savoy had attained the title of the intellectuals and the powers, Kings of Sardinia), we find a southern Italian, Pietro Giannone, writing that the saving, antico valor d'Italia is preserved alone in the Italian peoples who form the dominions of the princes of Savoy, and calling upon the other Italian rulers to christmas, follow their example, and restore in their subjects the saving the nature, ancient military discipline, whereby they will see Italy delivered from servitude and brought back to her former glory (4). But not even Giannone has yet the the intellectuals powers and other, conception of the essay, unification of the peninsula and commercialization essay, its islands under the sceptre of the King of Sardinia. I do not quote the famous sonnets of Vincenza da Filicaia on Italy. The typically Italian spirit at essay any epoch reveals itself, I think, not in melancholy sentiment concentrated on short essay on mahatma Italy's dono infelice di bellezza, but in saving the nature sheer virility of christmas, thought and utterance—that virilita that Santa Caterina so prized even in the mystical life. And this national virilita is the nature essay personified in the poet who arose during the commercialization, period immediately preceding the French Revolution, the period of literary and intellectual renovation which heralded the Risorgimento.
This poet, in whose person Piedmont became identified with Italy, was Vittorio Alfieri. At the end of one of his works in prose, Del Principe e delle lettere , completed in 1786, Alfieri speculates upon the form in which the destiny of Italy will be accomplished. Italy, he thinks, will soon be reunited under two princes (evidently the kings of Sardinia and Naples), and these two kingdoms will afterwards, either by marriage or conquest, be reduced to one. At this stage in Alfieri's political creed, king and tyrant were synon5nnous. So he continues that this one remaining sovereign will proceed to abuse his excessive power, and will in consequence be abolished by saving essay the Italians, who by property then, being all united and illumined, will have learned to act together and to consider themselves one single people. The form of government, then to saving the nature, be introduced, he declares elsewhere to be a question which must be solved by the best Italians living at the time of this liberation. But Alfieri's gift to the nation was not his political reflections, but his poetry.
The passion for liberty and hatred of oppression, with the belief in the power of literature as an instrument for national and social regeneration, is the animating spirit of of mice and men definition, his tragedies. For him the drama, as he says in one of his letters, should be a school in which men may learn to be free, strong, generous, impelled by true virtue, intolerant of all violence, lovers of their native land, fully conscious of the nature essay, their own rights, and in all their passions ardent, upright, magnanimous. And The Powers. The aim of the poet in his dramas was the creation of characters of rigid strength and inflexible wills, to inspire and form men and women of virile temper for the popolo italiano futuro , the generous and free Italians of the future,—to whom he dedicated his latest tragedy, the saving, Bruto secondo , in 1789, the year that marks the beginning of the French Revolution (5). Eight years after Alfieri's dedication, that popolo italiano futuro saw what was destined to become the and other essays, symbol of Italy's national aspirations. In January, 1797, during the republican movement that accompanied the the nature essay, invasion of Italy by the French revolutionary armies, the future banner of the nation—the tricolour of red, white, and green, the mystical hues of love and essay on mahatma, faith and hope—was raised for the first time at Reggio Emilia (1).
In spite of the devastations of the French armies and the prepotency of the conqueror (himself of essay, Italian name and Italian blood), to of mice and men essay, whom, in common with a great part of Europe, Italy was made subject, the revolutionary and Napoleonic era stimulated the national consciousness of Italians, turning their thoughts—though as yet but vaguely—towards an ultimate renovation and unification. Essay. Potremo sperare di risorgere fra non molto, the poet Giovanni Fantoni had written in christmas essay 1796 (2). Saving The Nature Essay. In an ode. La Repubblica Cisalpina (written at the end of 1797), Giovanni Pindemonte salutes the national banner, uttering the hope that the new republic may liberate all the other Italian states, reign sul bel paese intero, and change its name from Cisalpina to property paper, Italica. He is addressing Milan:—
Oggi in saving the nature te la Repubblica nascente. fonda suo centro e di sua possa il nido; e finor troppo ignoto Italia sente. uscir da te di libertade il grido. Il Mincio istesso nel cui forte aiuto. il Teutone oppressor vivea tranquillo, su le torn ondeggiar vede il temuto. tricolorato libero vessillo. (3) Vincenzo Monti, in his tragedy Caio Gracco (finished in exile at Paris in 1800), makes his hero appeal to the Romans in the name of l'italiana liberta, and receive as answer from the definition essay, assembled citizens:— Itali siam tutti, un popol solo, una sola famiglia. tutti, e fratelli. Ugo Foscolo, in the days of Napoleon's power, had fearlessly admonished him in the name of Italy. On the the nature, return of the of mice and men definition, Austrians to Milan, in 1815, he chose to leave his native land rather than swear allegiance, Cosi Ugo Foscolo diede alia nuova Italia una nuova istituzione, l'esilio (4).
In that same spring, almost exactly a century before Italy drew her sword in the great European war, came the proclamation of Rimini—Murat's abortive call to the Italians from the Alps to Sicily to assert their independence. A poet, then thirty years old, destined in old age to become a citizen of the Rome of United Italy, Alessandro Manzoni, hailed the proclamation in a noble canzone, cut short by the failure of the enterprise:— Liberi non sarem se non siamo uni. It is the first lyric of the Risorgimento (5). It was in the middle of the epoch of Italy's political martyrdom that followed the saving, Congress of Vienna — the epoch at the beginning of which we hear Leopardi's lyrical cry of despair—that the luminous vision of the of mice and men definition, Third Italy formed itself in the mind of the man who was at once the apostle of the saving the nature, unity of Italy and the prophet of universal brotherhood among the nations: Giuseppe Mazzini. Da quelli scogli, onde Colombo infante. Nuovi pe'l mar vedea monti spuntare, Egli vide nel ciel crepuscolare.
Co'l cuor di Gracco ed il pensier di Dante. A lei trasse per mezzo un cimitero, E un popol morto dietro a lui si mise (1). In 1831, Mazzini opened his Giovine Italia propaganda, declaring that Italy must be founded on the three inseparable bases of Unity, Liberty, and Independence, associating the future of Italy with international social regeneration, giving a mystical colouring to in tourism, the national movement as the cause of God and the People. The note of self-sacrifice, in the cause of a nation and thence for that of all humanity, was Mazzini's great gift to the Italian spirit of the Risorgimento. Man has no rights from nature, save this alone: to emancipate himself from every obstacle that impedes the free fulfilment of his own duties, Life is a mission. The Nature Essay. Virtue is very short essay gandhi sacrifice.
Where shall we go, O Lord? Go to die, ye who have to die; go to essay, suffer, ye who have to suffer (2). In this spirit he sent men forth on forlorn hopes to die for Italy, on the scaffold as conspirators or in hopeless struggles against overwhelming numbers; in this spirit he prepared the way for the national uprising of commercialization essay, 1848, when, as George Meredith writes: Italy reddened the the nature, sky with the banners of a land revived. It was then that one of the intellectuals, his disciples, the young poet Goffredo Mameli, who fell tra un inno e una battaglia under Garibaldi in the defence of Rome, wrote the battle-hymn of the Risorgimento, the hymn that was sung again, in y the early days of the European war, by saving essay the soldiers of United Italy on their way to very short essay gandhi, the front:— l'Italia s'e desta, dell'elmo di Scipio. s'e cinta la testa; dov'e la Vittoria? Le porga la chioma, che schiava di Roma. Iddio la creo. (3). Mazzini wrote of Dante: L'Italia cerca in saving the nature essay lui il segreto della sua Nazionalita; l'Europa, il segreto dell' Italia e una profezia del pensiero moderno. And it is in Dante, so to speak, that Mazzini finds the starting point of his own political creed. He is with Dante in associating the national aspirations of Italy with a philosophical theory of the function of nationality in himian civilisation.
Like Dante, he looked for a restored unity of civilisation, and assigned to Italy a leading part therein. But there is this difference. Dante started from the christmas essay, conception of this greater unity, merely leaving place for the free development of nationality within it; Mazzini held that the unity of saving, civilisation could only christmas, be attained by first solving the question of nationalities: Without the recognition of nationalities, freely and spontaneously constituted, we shall never have the essay, United States of Europe, On the map of Europe, you can see the design of God clearly marked by the courses of the great rivers, the curves of the great mountains, and other geographical conditions. These natural national boundaries have been violated by treaties inaugurated by conquest, by artificial politics, by the will of dynasties. In the name of and the powers essays, nationality, these violations must be ended, in accordance with the saving essay, tendencies and the vocations of the peoples, and with their free consent. The instinct of nationality thus satisfied, he looked forward to a universal federation of unified and republican nations, uno spirito d'affratellamento e di pacifica emulazione sulle vie del progresso. The Intellectuals And Other. And from Rome alone can come la parola della unita moderna . Saving. The destinies of on mahatma gandhi, Italy are those of the world. The Italian people will be the Messiah people to initiate this new epoch of the human race.
Rome is called upon to spread for a third time among the nations a gospel of civilisation, a gospel of moral unity: From the the nature essay, Rome of the People will issue the unity of very gandhi, civilisation, accepted by the free consent of the nations, for Humanity (4). We find some of saving, Mazzini's noblest passages on the national idea of Italy and her international mission, infused with that political mysticism which at times resembles the national Messianism of the poets of Poland, in the little book. Ai giovani d'Italia , published in tax research 1860. The Nature. It is there that he declares that Nationality is the sign placed by and other God on the brow of saving essay, every people; it is the sign of its special mission, which must be developed in harmony with the special missions of the the intellectuals and the and other essays, other peoples, and saving essay, the union of all these missions, when fulfilled, will one day represent la patria di tutti, la patria delle patrie, l'Umanita ; and only then will the word foreigner pass from the speech of men. But the individual can do nothing to actualise this conception, save in union with those who share his nationality. When God created Italy, He smiled upon property paper, her, and gave her as boundaries the two most sublime things that He placed in Europe, symbols of Eternal Power and of Eternal Motion, the Alps and the Sea.
From the immense circle of the Alps descends a wonderful chain of continuous ranges that reaches to where the sea bathes her, and even beyond into the nature, severed Sicily. And, where the mountains do not gird her, the sea girds her as with a loving embrace; that sea which our forefathers called mare nostra . Scattered around her in that sea, like gems fallen from dairy analysis, her diadem, are Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, and other lesser islands, where the nature of the soil and saving the nature, the structure of the of mice and men definition, mountains and the language and saving the nature essay, the hearts of men, all speak of Italy. Within those boundaries all the nations passed, one after the other, as conquerors and savage persecutors; but they have not been able to extinguish the holy name of Italy, nor the innermost energy of the race that first peopled her; the Italic element, more powerful than all, has worn out the religions, the speech, the tendencies of the conquerors, and superimposed upon them the imprint of Italian Life. A little further on is the picture of Rome: Rome of the Caesars, Rome of the queen analysis, Popes, Rome of the People to take the place of both, to unite all the world in the faith of Thought and of Action: E la trinita delta sioria, il cut verbo e in Roma . The pact of the saving the nature essay, new Faith will shine one day upon thesis, the nations from the the nature, Pantheon of Humanity. In the thesis in tourism, meantime Rome is your metropolis.
You cannot have a native land save in her and with her. Without Rome, there is saving the nature essay no Italy possible. There is the sanctuary of the nation. Even as the Crusaders moved to commercialization essay, the cry of Gerusalemme , you must advance to the cry of Roma , nor have peace or truce, until the banner of Italy floats in essay the pride of victory from each of the seven hills. I tell you that, as when the pagan gods died and Christ was born, so Europe to-day is athirst for a new life and a new heaven and a new earth; and she will follow, as on a holy crusade, the very short gandhi, steps of the saving, first people from whom, supported by strong deeds, a voice will come forth to proclaim adoration of the Eternal Truth and Eternal Justice, and to anathematise the power that oppresses and dairy rhetorical, the lie that debases life. Be yours that voice and that living example. You can do it. And Europe will crown your native land with a crown of love, upon which God will write: Woe to him who touches it (5).
The opening and closing sentences of his Politica internazionale (published in 1871) may be regarded, as it were, as Mazzini's political testament. The moral law is the criterion by which must be judged the worth of the social and political acts that constitute the life of nations. Great ideas make great peoples. And ideas are not great for peoples save inasmuch as they pass beyond their own boundaries. A people is only great on the condition of fulfilling a great and holy mission in the world, even as the importance and worth of an individual are measured by essay what he accomplishes on very on mahatma behalf of the society in which he lives. Internal organisation represents the sum of the means and forces gathered for saving the nature the fulfilment of the appointed external work. As circulation and exchange give value to production and reinvigorate it, international life gives worth and motion to the internal life of a people. National life is the means; international life is the end. The first is the work of man; the second is prescribed and thesis in tourism, pointed out by saving essay God. The prosperity, the glory, the the intellectuals and the powers essays, future of saving, a nation are in proportion to its approach to the end thus assigned (6).
As a political idealist, a man whose lips too were touched with the prophetic fire, we associate with the name of very on mahatma gandhi, Mazzini that of his rival, Vincenzo Gioberti. In 1843, Gioberti published his famous book, Il primato morale e civile degli Italiani . The conception, from the nature, which the work takes its title, is similar to thesis in tourism, that of saving the nature essay, Mazzini's third Rome: Italy, by her history and by her nature, is the nazione madre del genet e umano , destined by Providence to in tourism, exercise a primato morale e civile , to the nature essay, guide the other nations on the road of civilisation, to initiate a new epoch for the peoples. Thesis. But—apart from the fact that (at that stage in his thought) the one looked to saving essay, an Italian confederation, the other to a revolutionary unification—Mazzini and Gioberti differed in the form of commercialization christmas essay, their vision. Mazzini saw Italy the initiator of a republican Europe, the leader and inspiration of all nationalities struggling for essay liberty and self-determination; Gioberti saw the future Italy as a great democratic power in essay our modem sense of the word, with the part pertaining to her in saving the nature essay the counsels of Europe, with a national army, a common navy to very essay on mahatma gandhi, defend her ports and saving the nature essay, guard the commercialization, liberty of her seas, and saving essay, the acquisition of colonies in various parts of the globe. I may add that, while Mazzini would carry the boundaries of Italy up to the Alps and eastwards as far as to include Fiume, Gioberti went farther, and declared that the whole eastern coast of the in tourism, Adriatic with its islands, where not Greek, should be Italian. Unlike Mazzini, Gioberti did not live to see the unification of Italy. But, in 1851, in the days that followed the saving, disaster of Novara, he left to the nation with his last breath a greater book than his previous Primato : the Rinnovamento civile d'Italia . It was the completion and rectification of the Primato . Let Italians no longer look to a confederation or to thesis, revolutionary conspiracies, but to the hegemony of Piedmont, rallying round the saving the nature essay, young king, Victor Emanuel.
Let conservatives and democrats, monarchists and republicans, unite in the national idea, and each party, laying aside the of mice definition essay, character of faction and of sect, identify itself with the saving essay, nation. Gioberti already indicated, in Cavour, the statesman who would collaborate with the king in the work of Italian renovation. And, looking to the future of Europe, he declared: The adequate constitution of our nationality will only be effectuated by one of those universal and commercialization christmas essay, unconquerable commotions which free the peoples from the tutelage of their rulers, and make them the arbiters of their own destinies (7). Mazzini and Gioberti are the prophets of the Risorgimento. In poetry, the republican idealism is represented by Mameli; the monarchical faith by Giovanni Prati.
Niccolo Tommaseo speaks for the Italians of Dalmatia, his seconda Italia. In 1856, Daniele Manin—the heroic defender of Venice in 1849—followed Gioberti: Io, repubblicano , pianto per primo il vessillo unificatore: Italia col Re Sardo . The meeting of Garibaldi and saving the nature essay, Victor Emanuel in the liberated South on October 26th, 1860, symbolises the union of the revolutionary and monarchical forces that had delivered and were making Italy: Saluto il primo Re d'Italia (8). In more recent times, particularly since 1870, the national poet of Italy has been Giosue Carducci: perhaps the greatest European poet in the latter half of the nineteenth century. On Mahatma Gandhi. Benedetto Croce writes of him: The poetry of Carducci, sprung to birth at the close of the old Italian life and the nature essay, the beginning of the new, can be called a true epos of the history of property paper, Italy in the history of the world. Much of Carducci's verse, especially in the Odi barbare , represents in the highest artistic form that continuity of the Latin spirit which is the note of Italian civilisation throughout the centuries. The worship of Italy is with him a passion.
His lyrical exaltation of agriculture and rural life, his love of the fields, the harvests, the essay, sante visioni della natura, becomes one with his patriotic fervour; for the land that he depicts is Italy, the Italy of immemorial Latin tradition, Italy with her reminiscences of a mighty past, Italy which the glorious achievements of the Risorgimento has prepared for an even nobler future. At the end of in tourism, one of his masterpieces, the ode Alle fonti del Clitumno , comes a characteristic and significant note—we see the smoke and hear the whistle of the railway engine, symbol of economic progress, bringing new industries through the Umbrian plain:— Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e l'acque. de l'Umbria verde: in faccia a noi fumando. ed anelando nuove Industrie in corsa. fischia il vapore. Gli archi che nuovi trionfi aspettano. non piu di regi, non piu di cesari, e non di catene attorcenti.
braccia umane su gli eburnei carri; su l'eta nera, su I'eta barbara, su i mostri onde tu con serena. giustizia farai franche le genti. tonera il cielo su'l Foro, e cantici. di gloria, di gloria, di gloria. correran per saving the nature essay I'infinito azzurro. But the and the powers and other, poet abandons Mazzini's republicanism for the constitutional monarchy of the House of Savoy. In one of his latest odes, Piemonte , he hymns the part played by Piedmont and the italo Amleto, Charles Albert, in the redemption of Italy; in another, Bicocca di San Giacomo , he looks in the name of the Italian people to King Humbert for the fulfilment of the national destiny: — Noi non vogliamo, o Re, predar le belle. rive straniere e spingere vagante. l'aquila nostra a gli ampi voli avvezza: ? ma, se la guerra.
l'Alpe minacci e su' due mari tuoni, alto, o fratelli, i cuori! alto le insegne. e le memorie! avanti, avanti, o Italia. ? nuova ed antica (1). Gabriele d'Annunzio, in his funeral oration on the death of Carducci in 1907, uttered the pregnant words: Giosue Carducci—il quale credeva e affermava essere la civilta italica elemento necessario, come fu gia primo, alla vita della civilta mondiale—lega agli Italiani d'oggi l'orgoglio di stirpe e la volonta di operare (Giosue Carducci—who believed and declared that the Italian civilisation is a necessary element, even as it was of old, in the nature the life of the civilisation of the world—bequeathes to the Italians of to-day the pride of race and the will to act). And Gabriele d'Annunzio himself, in his splendid Canzoni della gesta d'oltremare and his more recent orations Per la piu grande Italia , came forward as the apostle of the Greater Italy of the future, creating a kind of new national romanticism, a conception of Italy's destiny as a nation, blended from the classical glories of Rome, the mighty history of the Italian maritime republics of the dairy queen rhetorical essay, Middle Ages, the heroic Garibaldean epic:— Cosi, divina Italia, sotto il giusto. tuo sole o nelle tenebre, munita. e cauta, col palladio su I'affusto, andar ti veggo verso la tua vita. nuova, e del tuo silenzio far vigore, e far grandezza d'ogni tua ferita (2). In Antonio Fogazzaro's great romance, Daniele Cortis , a feature of the protagonist's political faith is that the monarchy is capable of completing the lesson of Italian geography that King Victor Emanuel gave Europe.
The note of irredentistno was no new thing in Italian literature. In the early days of the unification, we find Giovanni Prati lamenting that his native region, the Trentino, il mio verde Tirolo, should still be held back from the maternal embraces of Italy:— No, non son pago. Chiedo e richiedo. da mane a vespro la patria mia (3). Carducci, in his Saluto italico , bids his antichi versi italici fly with the new year al bel mar di Trieste and her sister cities, gathering up the sighs and expectations, bearing the sacred name of Italy to the cities and regions of Italia irredent:—
In faccia a lo stranier, che armato accampasi. su'l nostro suol, cantate : Italia, Italia, Italia ! It was a saying of saving the nature, Garibaldi that a great part of modern Italy is due to her poets : Gia buona parte di quest' Italia la si deve ai poeti. A few years ago a small volume was published at Florence, Poeti italiani d'oltre i confini , a selection from the in tourism, poets of Italia irredenta. Natives of the Trentino, of Trieste, of Istria, of Dalmatia, these poets spoke and speak with the voice of Italy, participating in her intellectual life, sharing her aspirations and saving the nature, ideals. Thus from the foot of the Alps and from the shores of the of mice and men, Adriatic—regions where, as a poet of Trieste has said, every stone and every cave reflects the light of Rome or echoes the roar of the saving essay, winged lion of Venice (4)—the Virgilian cry, Italiam quaero patriam , arose, and of mice and men essay, we know what Italy's answer has been. Troppo ubbidisti e troppo sofferisti, giovane Italia, piena d'umilta! Con l'insidia a ogni passo. tu crescesti nel mondo, e ogni mano alle spalle. ti scagliava il suo sasso: sola tra i tuoi nemici, sola crescevi tu.
La grande ora e squillata: mostra la tua virtu! I read these lines, dated September, 1914, in a recently published volume by Luigi Siciliani (1). Let me quote from two poems written at the Italian front in the early days of Italy's entry into the war. In the one, by my friend Antonio Cippico, the two Crosses—the White Cross of Savoy and the Red Cross of healing—bear the message of a new Risorgimento to the Italian cities still held in Austrian bondage:— Segno candido o cruento. del novel Risorgimento, di a Trieste, a Zara, a Trento: 'La gran Madre Italia e qui' (2). The other is L'Altare, of essay, Sem Benelli, written in the trenches shortly before the first taking of Gorizia: the altar being the Carso, that desolate upland wilderness of rocks and stones over which, later, after the disaster that proved one of the greatest moral victories in history, the third army (as one of the British correspondents reported) came back with the christmas, discipline and saving, stern regularity of a parade manoeuvre. Upon that altar, Benelli wrote. Very Essay Gandhi. Victory had ascended to place the ring of saving the nature, Italy upon the finger of Trieste:— Su quest' Altare e salita.
ormai la vittoria. per porre l'anello d'Italia. in dito a Trieste. But the poet even then pictured an image of Victory, mangled with wounds and in tourism, with a countenance of sorrow, as the Italian soldier—il mite soldato d'Italia—surmounted the crags and rocks that barred him from his goal. And he apostrophised Italy with her cities:— O Patria multanime, sposata.
ogni giorno dal sole … … tu devi ora patire. il patimento che ti fara sacra; for that desolate plateau of the Carso, drenched with Italian blood, becomes in the poet's imagination the altar upon which the festival of saving, Greater Italy win, in days to come, be celebrated (3). The victory of Vittorio Veneto crowned and very short essay gandhi, completed the work of the Risorgimento. Saving Essay. We may remember how Swinburne, looking back upon the past gifts of Italy to the world and looking forward to the fulfilment of property paper, Mazzini's prophecy of the third Rome, wrote in the Song of the Standard: — Out of thine hands hast thou fed us with pasture of colour and song; Glory and beauty by birthright to thee as thy garments belong; Out of thine hands thou shalt give us as surely deliverance from wrong. Wisdom a lodestar to ships, and remembrance a flame-coloured light; Out of thine eyes thou shalt show us as surely the sun-dawn of right. None shall not follow thee, none shall not serve thee, not one that has heard; Twice hast thou spoken a message, and the nature essay, time is athirst for the third. With what sublime heroism, with what immense sacrifices (too often so inadequately recognised by her allies and associates), Italy has contributed—in measure out of all proportion to her resources—in saving the tax research paper, civilisation of Europe and giving us deliverance from wrong, the events of these terrible years have abundantly shown.
We look with confidence to Italy's future; we know that she will speak again to the nature, the world. In Dante's Roman Empire and in Mazzini's United States of Europe, there is an anticipation of what we are now calling the of mice, League of Nations. And, in any such restored unity of civilisation, we may well believe that Italy—with her history and her traditions, her glorious past and her heroic present, her admirable advance in every sphere of intellectual and saving, economic activity, and that genius in thesis in tourism virtue of which the primato morale e civile has been justly claimed for her—is destined to give light and saving the nature essay, guidance to our steps along the road of peace and progress.
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