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Computer critisism essays

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Black Mirror Magick: The Facial Reflection-Distortion Technique. The black mirror facial reflection-distortion technique (FRDT) as presented here was developed specifically for use during evocation. It has many applications, however, and essays may be incorporated into other developmental exercises and dessay magical workings. Critisism Essays. It is not the nathalie dessay only way to critisism scry, but it does appear to be more readily accessible to more practitioners than many other methods. Students are encouraged to legrand nathalie dessay concert seek out and try other methods for critisism essays the sake of comparison and in service of a well-rounded education. Best Essays. To that end, we suggest Benjamin Rowe’s Short Course in computer critisism essays, Scrying. The technique described in consultants, this document was originally published by Anne and Nelson White ( Secret Magic Revealed , The Technology Group, 1979), which was later described in Donald Michael Kraig#39;s Modern Magick , but the development of the technique for evocative magick, and the infusion of the critisism technique into the modern occult corpus is rightly attributed to Carroll Poke Runyon.

As a historical curio, Runyon set the michel dessay record straight on computer essays, White and Kraig#39;s involvement in publishing the technique a few years back during a public discussion on a Usenet forum, which has been archived here. The Initiative fully acknowledges the technique as an innovation of Runyon. Students are encouraged to fuck essays seek out, obtain, and essays study Runyon#39;s published work on the topic. While not a traditionalist per sé, he is without a doubt a true giant in essay proposal example, the field of modern ceremonial magick and especially evocation, and for obvious reasons is the computer critisism foremost expert on this particular technique. We encourage students to visit the website associated with the fuck essays order he founded, the Order of the Temple of Astarte to learn more about computer his work. He also has a few nice pictures of best sports their temple, including a very nice shot of critisism essays their Black Mirror in the Triangle d’ Art as used during an evocation.

Basic instructions for making a black mirror are included here for your convenience. The Initiative further acknowledges that some teachers and fuck essays practitioners do not agree with presenting the full FRDT as a developmental exercise, but would rather reserve it for actual magical workings only. One reason for computer essays the objection may be because some practitioners are of the opinion that the magick that takes place during the use of this technique is confounded with the remarkable visual effects. Others may contend that the shock of the initial visual effect is in part what triggers the magician to enter the necessary magical state. It is true that the visual effect can be quite startling at first. However, we contend that the visual effect is neither the source nor the effect of the magick itself, but is michel nathalie dessay concert, more akin to a tool that serves to facilitate the critisism experience of two-way communication during evocative magick, and magical change in general. In keeping with the Neuromagick perspective, the effects of magick are always defined by a change in the target circumstances, and fuck essays the cause of the circunstantial change is an initial change in the thinking and behavior of the practitioner.

In fact, the startling nature of the visual effect when the technique is being learned may be unnecessarily distracting. We therefore promote gaining experience with the visual effect as a developmental exercise, independent of magical efforts to initiate targeted changes. An urban legend that is associated with the computer essays type of visual effects this technique produces is generally known as the Bloody Mary ritual (or game), where kids, often at a slumber party or sleep-away summer camp, take a lit candle into the bathroom with the new york essays 2012 lights out, look into computer essays, the mirror, and chant Bloody Mary some number of times, at which point a ghost of a young girl is supposed to pop out of the mirror and attack, or try to pay for teachers paper drag participants back into computer essays, the mirror with her. Countless children have played this little game, which often ends with someone running out of the bathroom screaming with stories of a monstrous figure appearing in the mirror. The Bloody Mary effect is school essay consultants, driven by the power of emotionally charged suggestion (highly charged expectation) combined with some basic eye physiology having to do with low-light level perception (see the Mechanics section below). The Bloody Mary experience, an the initial appearance of a foreign face in the black mirror during an evocative magick session, feels in every way real when it happens, and is therefore quite convincing in the moment. The differences between the magical application of this naturally occuring effect and the child#39;s game are primarily in the preparation, focus, and intent, which drive the experience in both cases.

Unfocused and overexcited children tend to have a good scare and usually a good laugh with their friends afterward, while the effects the computer critisism well-trained magician can generate through the use of this tool, in both the short and long term, are indeed magical in new york bar exam essays, every sense of the word. As a side note, urban legend-driven superstitions combined with common elements of magical traditions, such as circle casting and ritual banishings, suggest inherent dangers in magical practice that requires special precautions to early-stage practitioners. That basic idea has been promoted by many modern authors as well, who often include various protective measures as part of their instructions. As a result, an unfortunate and unhealthy fear of performing magick without proper protection is fairly common in the modern occult studies community. This unfortunate dynamic is somewhat self-perpetuating, because the early stage practitioner is likely to feel somewhat insecure about critisism essays their ritual performance in any event. If that natural sense of insecurity becomes associated with a lack of an anticipated need for protection, the merit pay for teachers research aspirant may subsequently experience a host of critisism unnecessary fears associated with their magical work. Of course, while we recognize that fear is an exceptionally powerful and perfectly useful emotion,we feel that unwarranted fear tends to interfere with good magick, and should therefore be avoided.

Rest assured that the fears typically associated with improper protective rituals or devices while practicing magick are indeed unwarranted. Many traditional magical practices employ no such protections before and concert after workings. Computer Critisism. Circle casting and banishing rituals do have their place in both history and practice, but their actual functions have more to essay do with focusing the practitioners#39; mind and setting the emotional tone in preparation for magick, rather than keeping nasty spirits away, etc. Public Internet discussion groups on critisism, occult topics are rife with early stage magicians who have convinced themselves that they#39;ve opened a portal to a demonic dimension or some such thing, and that they are plagued by a host of malignant non-corporeal beasties, which essentially equates to a kid at new york bar exam essays summer camp running screaming from the bathroom after a glimpse of Bloody Mary. What the reader should be aware of computer critisism here is that neither the kid at summer camp, nor the fuck essays demon-plagued chat room participant, the vast majority of the time, suffers any real harm from their experiences, as frightening as they may be. While most serious students of magick eventually learn their way around these superstitions, the urban myths are prominent enough in the culture to have substantial covert psychological influence over developmental work and magical practice, especially in the early going and especially with a technique as effective and as initially provocative as the FRDT. To be clear, the supposed dangers of magick is not the concern here. Rather, it#39;s the developmental delays some early stage practitioners experience if they get caught up in the psychological dynamics of an unnecessary focus on computer critisism, the need to protect oneself before, during, and after a magical effort. We feel that one of the best ways to overcome potential psychological hindrances related to these myths is to practice the facial reflection-distortion technique as an research paper, exercise, independent of actual magical work. This allows the student to understand the, often startling, visual effect to be the tool that it is, so that when magick right and proper is performed using this particularly effective tool, the magical effects are more clearly recognized and computer critisism understood for what they really are.

The Exercise (for developmental purposes) The technique requires a black mirror or comparable obscure reflective device. If you don#39;t already have one, read these instructions on fuck essays, making a black mirror. If you prefer, you may use an alternative, more extemporaneous reflective surface, such as a bowl of darkly colored liquid (or a black bowl filled with water or ink). The primary difference would be in the physical posture that you would be required to maintain during the operation. The technique also requires hand-held candles, and computer critisism while it is unlikely, it#39;s possible that one might naturally slip into a deep enough trance state to drop a candle. Therefore, we recommend having an observer present, especially the first few times. Proposal Example. table or comparable surface. black mirror or comparable device. hand-held candlesticks (with drip guards to protect your hands) 1. Set up in a room with all sources of natural light blocked off. The black mirror should be set on computer critisism, the table so that it#39;s roughly at eye level or slightly below (prop it up as as necessary; a few books usually does the trick) and about arm#39;s length from the face when seated.

Be sure that you situate yourself and the mirror so that you can see your face reflected in the surface. If using a bowl of dark liquid, you#39;ll need to situate yourself so that you can gaze down into the bowl and see your face reflected back. 2. Light the teachers research candles and hold them so that the essays flames are not reflected in the mirror and are not in your direct line of sight. When you look at your facial reflection in the mirror, your face should be illuminated from bar exam 2012, either side by computer critisism, the candlelight. Some get best results from leaning forward and resting the elbows on essays, the table surface, while others do better leaning slightly back and holding the candles somewhat away from the computer critisism body. You#39;ll have to experiment to fuck essays find what works best for you. 3. Perform a basic relaxation sequence, then follow up with a deep relaxation or simple self-hypnosis induction. Most do well with a single technique like this one, but do some research and computer essays experiment to find what works best for you. You don#39;t need to achieve a deep hypnotic state for this work. Strive for a nicely relaxed state.

A mild trance will naturally develop as you go, and is really all you need. Merit Research. 4. Critisism Essays. Look at your facial reflection. At first, make an effort to avoid blinking, but don#39;t worry too much if you realize that you#39;ve blinked. Maintain your relaxed state and simply gaze at the reflection. 5. At some point your face will morph, usually within a few minutes. If this doesn#39;t happen, don#39;t worry about it. If your relaxed state feels stable, just keep gazing. Best Essays. If your state is interrupted, you may reset, go through your relaxation sequence again, then continue gazing.

If you still get no results, try again another day. Computer Essays. 6. When your face does morph, it#39;s likely to be a startling effect. You may be shocked out of your state the first time, or even the first few times. If so, be content with your progress and work at it again another day. 7. Essays. When you can observe the computer critisism essays morphing image and legrand nathalie continue to maintain your state, allow the face to computer morph without exerting any mental effort to control it. Do this for as long as you desire.

8. When finished, return to fuck essays your natural state with a little gentle stretching, and then a little something to eat. Practice this technique until you can get a morphing image in essays, the mirror consistently. The visual effects caused by the technique really are visual; they#39;re not astral per se, they don#39;t take place in consultants, the mind#39;s eye, and they#39;re not hallucinations. There#39;s a relatively simple physiological mechanism that, along with the basic mechanisms of critisism essays perception, create the effects. Proposal. I think that anyone who uses the computer technique should have at least a basic concept of what#39;s going on, so here it is in brief: By gazing without blinking for a little while, the michel legrand nathalie ciliary muscles that are responsible for lens accommodation fatigue, which prevents sharp focus, which subsequently degrades the visual signal. Even before the computer ciliary muscles fatigue, the visual signal is already somewhat ambiguous because of the obscured reflective devise and the variable and low light conditions created by the hand-held candles.

So the perceptual system is receiving a degraded, ambiguous image that is roughly in fuck essays, the shape of a face. Now, generally speaking, when visual input is ambiguous, due to occlusions, poor light conditions, or any number of other reasons, the brain automatically fills in the gaps to computer critisism essays create a percept of what#39;s most likely to be there . As a simple example, have a look at this image: Most everyone perceives a triangle there, even though the lines of the triangle that connect the points are not actually there. Fuck Essays. That is, the three points certainly suggest a triangle, but we tend to perceive edges that would differentiate what should be the computer critisism inside and outside of the triangle where the lines that connect those points should be.There are in fact no edges there at all, but when you look at it you#39;ll perceive that the outside of the triangle that seems to best sports essays be there is a shade darker than the computer essays inside (or visa versa). And notice that knowing there are no lines there doesn#39;t diminish the effect. Sports. That#39;s because it#39;s not caused by what you think or believe. It#39;s caused by your previous experience and the statistical probabilities that have been encoded in your perceptual system by your past experience. So given your experience with triangles, with those points in that specific relation to one another, it#39;s almost certain that there are lines connecting them, so your mind shades your perception so that you perceive a fully formed triangle. The perception of those edges may be a little ambiguous, perhaps not supper-stark the way drawn lines would appear, but the edges are definitely perceived and they#39;re stable.

It#39;s not an hallucination either, though one might rightly call it an critisism, optical illusion. Even so, this is your perceptual system behaving normally given this input. Example. The gestalt of the perception is in no practical way different than if you were looking at a fully formed triangle, because a triangle is the computer essays most likely thing to be there. So that same filling in essay proposal, perceptual process is critisism essays, responsible for the appearance of a foreign face in FRDT. If you#39;re getting ambiguous input that looks kind of sports like a face, you#39;ll see a face of some sort, and computer critisism whatever was ambiguous will be filled in with something from your bank of michel legrand nathalie dessay experience. From what we know about perception, you should see what#39;s most likely to computer be there. Essays. Interestingly, what most people experience with this technique, at first at least, is a fairly monstrous-looking face. Computer Essays. We can theorize about why that should be, but in truth the reasons for it remain unclear, at least in terms of what the physiological/perceptual mechanisms tell us about what#39;s going on. What is clear from experience and a lot usage of the technique by merit, many people is that with practice one can develop some control over the appearance of the image, so that what may appear monstrous at first can be morphed into something more pleasant to look at. Given the perceptual realities, however, that control is computer essays, probably not directly a function of what one thinks or wants, but is more likely to be an new york essays, effect of computer subtly shifting ones posture and the position of the hand-held candles.

Interestingly, consciously shifting ones position and essays 2012 the candles in an effort to adjust the image doesn#39;t tend to work well. Rather, if one merely continues to gaze, it seems that one will automatically make the necessary postural adjustments and the image will, seemingly naturally, become both more stable and less monstrous. Now, the technique is usually taught in essays, conjunction with a mild hypnotic (trance) state. The visual effect, however, as should be readily understood now, doesn#39;t depend on hypnosis or trance at all. Whether or not the rest of the evocative magick experience depends on trance/hypnosis is an open question. Merit Pay For Paper. My experience suggests that the answer is maybe a little bit yes and a little bit no. Computer Critisism. It#39;s yes in as much as a well-designed ritual that is performed well tends to transform the magician#39;s state of awareness from normal to something rather different. If we assume that such a shift is akin to getting to a hypnotic state, then maybe the answer is yes in that specific sense. Merit Teachers. If we assume that hypnosis is a function of a typical relaxation/induction method that hypnotists employ or that is typically presented in self-hypnosis methods, then I think the answer is no, those techniques are not necessary, not to produce the visual effects or the rest of what goes with it during evocative magick. As a final point on the FRDT, as I#39;m fond of pointing out, the visual effect itself is not the magick.

It#39;s a tool that helps facilitate a two-way communication experience. The hard part, as with any other evocative magick technique, is getting something useful to essays communicate with on sports, the line , so to speak (refer to A Sampling of Practical Techniques). Whether you#39;re making a Goetia-style circle-in-a-triangle design, or some other design, you#39;ll need at least two things: a piece of computer glass the essay example size and shape you want for your reflective surface and some flat black spray paint. Computer Essays. Be sure your work area is well ventilated. Outdoors is probably best if possible, but not if it#39;s dusty and merit pay for teachers windy. Lay the glass (removed from computer, any frame you plan to use) on a several sheets of essay newspaper or a drop cloth, with the side you intend to use as the viewing surface faced down and computer essays back side-up, clean, and dry. Shake the spray paint per directions on essays, the can. Then spray the paint with a sweeping motion from side to side across the surface of the critisism glass. Start at the top and sweep across, move down a little and business consultants sweep across again, etc., till the entire surface is computer, coated with paint. Allow to dry for at least two hours, and then apply another coat. Some people apply as many as 13 coats of paint, but 2-3 is bar exam 2012, usually plenty.

Leave it alone for at least 24 hours. Pick it up and computer critisism carefully clean off the front (viewing) surface. The glass is now ready to business essay consultants be framed or mounted. A common method of computer critisism essays making a magick mirror is to buy a non-reflective picture frame and use the fuck essays glass that comes with it. The mirror surface can be any shape but oval or circular is most common. A square frame with an oval or circular matte is not uncommon. The method developed by essays, Carroll Poke Runyon (also published by Donald Michael Kraig) entails cutting a triangle out of wood and painting it with names and symbols (usually from Goetia), and then mounting a circular black mirror on it. The glass may be mounted a number of ways.

L-shaped mirror mounts will work well, but talk to essay proposal people at computer the hardware store about the smallest size that will securely hold the weight of your mirror. The triangle can be set on an easel on a slight angle. Alternatively, you could install a prop on the back to make a table-top model (look at any table-top picture frame to see how that#39;s done). Size should be determined by how much space you have, and your desires (if you prefer to stand or sit, etc.), however, you want to avoid reflecting the candle flames in the mirror surface, which can become a problem if the mirror is too large. As an alternative to glass, you could use any dark, reflective surface, including polished black marble or onyx, a dark ceramic dinner plate, etc., which could be set on a bookstand on a table. The general idea is to avoid the sharp reflection of a regular mirror. Fuck Essays. A soft, somewhat obscured reflection is the goal. While neither traditional nor easy to make at home, an innovation is to etch a design that suits the magick system in use into the back surface of the critisism glass before coating with black paint.

The example below (left) was designed for use with Neuromagick#39;s own system of magick, and the other (right) is etched with the classic Goetic Triangle d#39;Art design. The circle in the middle of the design is big enough to best essays serve as the entire mirror, but the whole mirror#39;s surcace can still be used, as the etching does not interfere with the facial reflection-distrontion technique, or most other scrying methods. Note. The generalized Neuromagick philosophy includes the notion that information and computer ideas should be freely shared. Therefore, we pay for the hosting service out of pocket, to ensure that the essays provided on the Neuromagick site are always offered free of charge and free of third party commercial advertisements. Furthermore, visitors are welcome to reproduce and merit pay for teachers research paper distribute the essays under two specific conditions: 1) that the documents be properly cited (referred back to this site) and that no one is essays, ever charged in any amount or form for receiving Neuromagick document(s).

With that in mind, if you appreciate the free information and fuck essays ideas, and you want to support the effort, feel free to visit our Esty store, where we sell items that we#39;ve crafted ourselves, many of which are based on the ideas discussed in the essays. If you like something we have listed, by all means buy it from us. The proceeds will contribute to critisism the maintenance of the site as well as our personal sustenance. Many thanks.

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American society has not yet recognized the complex origins or the profound consequences of merit paper child victimization. The services required for children who have been abused or neglected, including medical care, family counseling, foster care, and specialized education, are expensive and are often subsidized by governmental funds. The General Accounting Office (1991) has estimated that these services cost more than $500 million annually. Equally disturbing, research suggests that child maltreatment cases are highly related to social problems such as juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, and violence, which require additional services and severely affect the quality of computer critisism essays life for many American families. The Importance Of Child Maltreatment Research. The challenges of conducting research in best essays, the field of child maltreatment are enormous. Although we understand comparatively little about the causes, definitions, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect, we do know enough to recognize that the origins and consequences of child victimization are not confined to the months or years in which reported incidents actually occurred.

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Yet the critisism, families of essay child abuse and neglect victims are often not active in social and political organizations. Unable to speak for computer, themselves or employ paid representatives to proposal, promote their interests, they have been discounted and overlooked in the process of determining what social problems deserve public resources and attention from the American research community. Research on child maltreatment can reduce long-term economic costs associated with treating the consequences of child maltreatment, in areas such as mental health services, foster care, juvenile delinquency, and family violence. Economic issues must also be considered in essays, evaluating long-term treatment costs and merit teachers research paper, loss of earnings associated with the computer critisism, consequences of child victimization. One analysis cited by the General Accounting Office that used prevalence and treatment rates generated from merit pay for multiple studies (Daro, 1988) calculated potential fiscal costs resulting from child abuse estimates as follows: (1) Assuming a 20 percent delinquency rate among adolescent abuse victims, requiring an essays average of 2 years in a correctional institution, the public cost of merit pay for teachers research their incarceration would be more than $14.8 million. (2) If 1 percent of critisism essays severely abused children suffer permanent disabilities, the annual cost of community services (estimated at $13 per day) for treating developmentally disabled children would increase by $1.1 million. (3) The future lost productivity of severely abused children is $658-1300 million annually, if their impairments limit their potential earnings by only 5-10 percent. Research on child maltreatment can provide empirical evidence to improve the quality of many legal and organizational decisions that have broad-based social implications. Government officials, judges, legislators, social service personnel, child welfare advocates, and others make hundreds of crucial decisions each day about the teachers research, lives and computer critisism essays, futures of child victims and their offenders.

These decisions include the selection of cases of suspected child abuse and neglect for fuck essays, investigation and determinations about which children should remain with families in computer, which abuse has occurred. Individuals making such decisions will benefit from informed guidance on the effectiveness and consequences of merit pay for teachers research various social interventions that address child maltreatment. Such guidance can evolve from research on critisism the outcomes of alternative responses to reports of michel legrand nathalie child abuse and neglect, results of computer therapeutic and social service interventions, and cost-effectiveness studies. For example, research that describes the conditions under which family counseling and family preservation efforts are effective has tremendous implications for the importance of attachment relationships for children and the disruption of these relationships brought on sports essays by foster care. Research on computer essays the etiology of child maltreatment can provide a scientific basis for best sports, primary prevention of child abuse#151;that is, through programs that will counteract etiological factors before they have a chance to produce child abuse in the next generation. Research On Child Maltreatment Is Currently.

Undervalued And Undeveloped. Research in the field of child maltreatment studies is relatively undeveloped when compared with related fields such as child development, so- cial welfare, and criminal violence. Critisism Essays! Although no specific theory about the causes of child abuse and neglect has been substantially replicated across studies, significant progress has been gained in essays, the past few decades in identifying the dimensions of complex phenomena that contribute to the origins of critisism child maltreatment. Efforts to improve the quality of research on any group of children are dependent on the value that society assigns to the potential inherent in young lives. Although more adults are available in American society today as service providers to care for children than was the legrand nathalie concert, case in 1960, a disturbing number of recent reports have concluded that American children are in trouble (Fuchs and computer critisism, Reklis, 1992; National Commission on Children, 1991; Children's Defense Fund, 1991). Efforts to encourage greater investments in research on children will be futile unless broader structural and social issues can be addressed within our society. Research on general problems of violence, substance addiction, social inequality, unemployment, poor education, and the treatment of children in the social services system is incomplete without attention to proposal, child maltreatment issues. Research on child maltreatment can play a key role in informing major social policy decisions concerning the services that should be made available to children, especially children in families or neighborhoods that experience significant stress and violence. As a nation, we already have developed laws and regulatory approaches to reduce and prevent childhood injuries and deaths through actions such as restricting hot water temperatures and requiring mandatory child restraints in automobiles.

These important precedents suggest how research on risk factors can provide informed guidance for social efforts to protect all of computer critisism America's children in both familial and other settings. Not only has our society invested relatively little in research on merit pay for research children, but we also have invested even less in research on children whose families are characterized by multiple problems, such as poverty, substance abuse, violence, welfare dependency, and computer essays, child maltreatment. In part, this slower development is influenced by the complexities of research on major social problems. But the sports essays, state of research on this topic could be advanced more rapidly with increased investment of funds. Critisism! In the competition for scarce research funds, the underinvestment in child maltreatment research needs to be understood in the context of essay example bias, prejudice, and the lack of a clear political constituency for children in general and disadvantaged children in particular (Children's Defense Fund, 1991; National Commission on Children, 1991). Essays! Factors such as racism, ethnic discrimination, sexism, class bias, institutional and professional jealousies, and social inequities influence the development of our national research agenda (Bell, 1992, Huston, 1991). The evolving research agenda has also struggled with limitations im- posed by attempting to transfer the results of legrand dessay concert sample-specific studies to diverse groups of computer essays individuals. The roles of merit culture, ethnic values, and economic factors pervade the development of parenting practices and family dynamics. In setting a research agenda for this field, ethnic diversity and multiple cultural perspectives are essential to critisism essays, improve the quality of the research program and to overcome systematic biases that have restricted its development. Researchers must address ethical and legal issues that present unique obligations and dilemmas regarding selection of subjects, provision of services, and disclosure of data.

For example, researchers who discover an undetected incident of child abuse in pay for paper, the course of an interview are required by state laws to disclose the identities of the victim and offender(s), if known, to computer critisism, appropriate child welfare officials. These mandatory reporting requirements, adopted in michel legrand nathalie, the interests of protecting children, may actually cause long-term damage to children by restricting the scope of computer critisism research studies and discouraging scientists from developing the knowledge base necessary to guide social interventions. Substantial efforts are now required to reach beyond the limitations of current knowledge and to gain new insights that can improve the quality of social service efforts and public policy decisions affecting the essay, health and essays, welfare of abused and neglected children and their families. Most important, collaborative long-term research ventures are necessary to diminish social, professional, and institutional prejudices that have restricted the development of a comprehensive knowledge base that can improve understanding of, and response to, child maltreatment. Dimensions Of Child Abuse And Neglect.

The human dimensions of child maltreatment are enormous and tragic. The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect has called the business school, problem of child maltreatment ''an epidemic in computer critisism, American society, one that requires a critical national emergency response. The scale and severity of child abuse and neglect has caused various public and private organizations to mobilize efforts to raise public awareness of individual cases and societal trends, to improve the reporting and tracking of child maltreatment cases, to strengthen the responses of social service systems, and to develop an effective and fair system for protecting and offering services to victims while also punishing adults who deliberately harm children or place them in danger. Over the past several decades, a growing number of state and federal funding programs, governmental reports, specialized journals, and research centers, as well as national and international societies and conferences, have examined various dimensions of the problem of child maltreatment. The results of these efforts have been inconsistent and best essays, uneven. In addressing aspects of each new revelation of abuse or each promising new intervention, research efforts often have become diffuse, fragmented, specific, and narrow. Critisism Essays! What is lacking is a coordinated approach and a general conceptual framework that can add new depth to merit pay for teachers paper, our understanding of child maltreatment.

A coordinated approach can accommodate diverse perspectives while providing direction and guidance in establishing research priorities and synthesizing research knowledge. Computer! Organizational mechanisms are also needed to facilitate the application and integration of research on child maltreatment in related areas such as child development, family violence, substance abuse, and fuck essays, juvenile delinquency. Child maltreatment is not a new problem, yet concerted service, research, and policy attention toward it is essays, just beginning. Although isolated studies of child maltreatment appeared in legrand concert, the medical and sociological literature in the first half of the twentieth century, the publication of The Battered Child Syndrome by C. Henry Kempe and associates (1962) is generally considered the first definitive paper in the field in the United States. The efforts of Kempe and others to publicize disturbing medical experience with child abuse and essays, neglect led to the passage of the michel legrand nathalie dessay, first Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act in 1974 (P.L.

93-247). The act, which has been amended several times (most recently in 1992), established a governmental program designed to guide and consolidate national and computer essays, state data collection efforts regarding reports of child abuse and neglect, conduct national surveys of household violence, and sponsor research and legrand concert, demonstration programs to computer essays, prevent, identify, and treat child abuse and neglect. However, the federal government's leadership role in building a research base in this area has been complicated by changes and inconsistencies in research plans and example, priorities, limited funding, politicized peer review, fragmentation of effort among various federal agencies, poorly scheduled proposal review deadlines, and bias introduced by competing institutional objectives. 1 The lack of comprehensive, long-term planning for a research base has resulted in a field characterized by contradictions, conflict, and fragmentation. The role of the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect as the lead federal agency in supporting research in this field has been sharply criticized (U.S.

Advisory Board, 1991). Many observers believe that the federal government lacks leadership, funding, and an effective research program for studies on child maltreatment. The Complexity Of Child Maltreatment. Child maltreatment was originally seen in the form of the computer critisism, battered child, often portrayed in terms of best essays physical abuse. Today, four general categories of child maltreatment are generally recognized: (1) physical. abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) neglect, and (4) emotional maltreatment. Each category covers a range of behaviors, as discussed in Chapter 2. These four categories have become the focus of separate studies of essays incidence and prevalence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and school consultants, treatment, with uneven development of research within each area and poor integration of knowledge across areas. Each category has developed its own typology and framework of reference terms, revealing certain similarities (such as the importance of developmental perspectives in considering the consequences of maltreatment) but also important differences (such as the predatory behavior associated with some forms of sexual abuse that do not appear in the etiology of other forms of child maltreatment). In addition to the category of child maltreatment, the duration, source, intensity, timing, and computer critisism essays, situational context of consultants incidents of child victimization are now recognized as important factors in computer essays, studying the origin and fuck essays, consequences of essays child maltreatment.

Yet information about these factors is rarely requested or recorded by social agencies or health professionals in the process of identifying or documenting reports of child maltreatment. Furthermore, research is often weakened by variation in research definitions of child maltreatment, bias in the recruitment of michel nathalie dessay concert research subjects, the absence of information regarding circumstances surrounding maltreatment reports, the absence of measures to assess selected variables under study, and computer critisism, the absence of a developmental perspective in pay for research paper, many research studies. The co-occurrence of different forms of child maltreatment has been examined only to computer essays, a limited extent. Relatively little is known about areas of similarity and differences in terms of causes, consequences, prevention, and merit pay for teachers research paper, treatment of selected types of child abuse and neglect. Inconsistencies in definitions often preclude comparative analyses of clinical studies. For example, studies of sexual abuse have indicated wide variations in its prevalence, often as a result of differences in the types of behavior that might be included in the definition adopted by each research investigator.

Emotional abuse is computer essays, also a matter of controversy in some quarters, primarily because of broad variations in its definition. Research on child maltreatment is best sports, also complicated by the fragmentation of services and responses by which our society addresses specific reports of child maltreatment. Cases may involve children who are victims or witnesses to computer critisism, single or repeated incidents of child abuse and neglect. Sadly, child maltreatment often involves various family members, relatives, or other individuals who reside in essays 2012, the homes or neighborhoods of the affected children. Adult figures may be perpetrators of offensive incidents or mediators in intervention or prevention efforts. The importance of the computer, social ecological framework of the child has only recently been recognized in studies of maltreatment. Responses to child abuse and neglect involve a variety of social institutions, including commu- nities, schools, hospitals, churches, youth associations, the media, and other social structures that provide services for children.

Such groups and organizations present special intervention opportunities to reduce the school essay consultants, scale and scope of the problem of child maltreatment, but their activities are often poorly documented and essays, uncoordinated. Finally, governmental offices at the local, state, and federal levels have legal and social obligations to bar exam essays 2012, develop programs and resources to address child maltreatment, and their role is critical in developing a research agenda for this field. In the past, the computer essays, research agenda has been determined predominantly by merit teachers research paper, pragmatic needs in the development and delivery of treatment and computer critisism essays, prevention services rather than by theoretical paradigms, a process that facilitates short-term studies of specialized research priorities but impedes the development of a well-organized, coherent body of merit paper scientific knowledge that can contribute over time to understanding fundamental principles and issues. As a result, the critisism essays, research in this field has been generally viewed by fuck essays, the scientific community as fragmented, diffuse, decentralized, and of poor quality. The research literature in the field of child maltreatment is critisism essays, immense#151;over 2000 items are included in the panel's research bibliography, a portion of merit teachers paper which is referenced in this report. Despite this quantity of literature, researchers generally agree that the quality of research on child maltreatment is relatively weak in comparison to health and social science research studies in areas such as family systems and critisism, child development. School Essay Consultants! Only a few prospective studies of child maltreatment have been undertaken, and most studies rely on the use of clinical samples (which may exclude important segments of the research population) or adult memories. Both types of samples are problematic and can produce biased results. Critisism! Clinical samples may not be representative of all cases of child maltreatment. For example, we know from epidemiologic studies of fuck essays disease of cases that were derived from hospital records that, unless the phenomenon of interest always comes to a service provider for treatment, there exist undetected and untreated cases in the general population that are often quite different from those who have sought treatment. Similarly, when studies rely on adult memories of childhood experiences, recall bias is computer essays, always an issue.

Longitudinal studies are quite rare, and some studies that are described as longitudinal actually consist of hybrid designs followed over time. To ensure some measure of quality, the panel relied largely on studies that had been published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Essay Proposal! More rigorous scientific criteria (such as the computer critisism essays, use of appropriate theory and pay for, methodology in the conduct of the study) were considered by the panel, but were not adopted because little of the existing work would meet such selection. criteria. Given the early stage of development of this field of research, the panel believes that even weak studies contain some useful information, especially when they suggest clinical insights, a new perspective, or a point of departure from commonly held assumptions. Computer! Thus, the merit research, report draws out issues based on clinical studies or studies that lack sufficient control samples, but the panel refrains from drawing inferences based on this literature. The panel believes that future research reviews of the child maltreatment literature would benefit from the identification of explicit criteria that could guide the selection of computer critisism essays exemplary research studies, such as the following: The extent to which the study is fuck essays, guided by theory regarding the origins and pathways of child abuse and neglect; The use of appropriate and replicable instrumentation (including outcome measures) in the conduct of the study; and. The selection of critisism appropriate study samples, including the use of experimental and nathalie dessay, control groups in etiological studies or in computer critisism essays, the analysis of outcomes of child maltreatment or intervention efforts.

For the most part, only a few studies will score well in each of the above categories. It becomes problematic, therefore, to rate the value of studies which may score high in one category but not in others. The panel has relied primarily on studies conducted in the past decade, since earlier research work may not meet contemporary standards of methodological rigor. However, citations to earlier studies are included in this report where they are thought to be particularly useful and when research investigators provided careful assessments and analysis of issues such as definition, interrelationships of various types of abuse, and the social context of child maltreatment. A Comparison With Other Fields of Family and Child Research. A comparison with the field of studies on family functioning may illustrate another point about the status of the merit pay for teachers research, studies on critisism child maltreatment. Pay For Teachers Research Paper! The literature on critisism essays normal family functioning or socialization effects differs in many respects from the literature on proposal example child abuse and neglect.

Family sociology research has a coherent body of literature and reasonable consensus about what constitutes high-quality parenting in middle-class, predominantly White populations. Family functioning studies have focused predominantly on large, nonclinical populations, exploring styles of parenting and parenting practices that generate different kinds and levels of competence, mental health, and character in children. Studies of family functioning have tended to follow cohorts of subjects over long periods to identify the critisism, effects of variations in childrearing practices and patterns on children's. competence and example, adjustment that are not a function of social class and circumstances. By contrast, the vast and burgeoning literature on child abuse and neglect is computer essays, applied research concerned largely with the teachers paper, adverse effects of personal and social pathology on children. The research is often derived from very small samples selected by clinicians and case workers. Research is generally cross-sectional, and almost without exception the samples use impoverished families characterized by multiple problems, including substance abuse, unemployment, transient housing, and so forth. Computer! Until recently, researchers demonstrated little regard for incorporating appropriate ethnic and cultural variables in comparison and control groups. In the past decade, significant improvements have occurred in the development of fuck essays child maltreatment research, but key problems remain in the area of definitions, study designs, and the use of instrumentation. As the nature of computer essays research on research child abuse and neglect has evolved over time, scientists and practitioners have likewise changed. The psychopathologic model of child maltreatment has been expanded to include models that stress the interactions of computer essays individual, family, neighborhood, and larger social systems.

The role of ethnic and cultural issues are acquiring an emerging importance in formulating parent-child and family-community relationships. Business Essay Consultants! Earlier simplistic conceptionalizations of perpetrator-victim relationships are evolving into computer critisism multiple-focus research projects that examine antecedents in family histories, current situational relationships, ecological and neighborhood issues, and interactional qualities of relationships between parent-child and offender-victim. In addition, emphases in treatment, social service, and legal programs combine aspects of both law enforcement and therapy, reflecting an international trend away from punishment, toward assistance, for families in trouble. The commissioner of the essays, Administration for Children, Youth, and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requested that the National Academy of Sciences convene a study panel to undertake a comprehensive examination of the theoretical and pragmatic research needs in the area of child maltreatment. The Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect was asked specifically to: Review and assess research on critisism child abuse and neglect, encompassing work funded by the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families and other known sources under public and private auspices; Identify research that provides knowledge relevant to the field; and. Recommend research priorities for the next decade, including new. areas of research that should be funded by public and private agencies and suggestions regarding fields that are no longer a priority for funding. The report resulting from this study provides recommendations for allocating existing research funds and also suggests funding mechanisms and topic areas to which new resources could be allocated or enhanced resources could be redirected.

By focusing this report on research priorities and the needs of the research community, the panel's efforts were distinguished from related activities, such as the reports of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, which concentrate on the policy issues in best sports essays, the field of child maltreatment. The request for essays, recommendations for nathalie, research priorities recognizes that existing studies on child maltreatment require careful evaluation to improve the evolution of the field and to computer critisism essays, build appropriate levels of human and financial resources for these complex research problems. Through this review, the panel has examined the strengths and weaknesses of school past research and identified areas of knowledge that represent the greatest promise for advancing understanding of, and dealing more effectively with, the problem of child maltreatment. In conducting this review, the panel has recognized the special status of studies of child maltreatment. The experience of child abuse or neglect from any perspective, including victim, perpetrator, professional, or witness, elicits strong emotions that may distort the design, interpretation, or support of computer empirical studies. The role of the media in dramatizing selected cases of child maltreatment has increased public awareness, but it has also produced a climate in which scientific objectivity may be sacrificed in the name of urgency or humane service. Many concerned citizens, legislators, child advocates, and proposal, others think we already know enough to address the essays, root causes of sports child maltreatment.

Critical evaluations of treatment and prevention services are not supported due to critisism, both a lack of funding and a lack of appreciation for the role that scientific analysis can play in paper, improving the quality of existing services and identifying new opportunities for interventions. Critisism Essays! The existing research base is small in fuck essays, volume and computer essays, spread over a wide variety of best sports topics. The contrast between the importance of the problem and computer critisism essays, the difficulty of approaching it has encouraged the merit pay for, panel to proceed carefully, thoroughly distinguishing suppositions from facts when they appear. Research on child maltreatment is at a crossroads#151;we are now in a position to merge this research field with others to incorporate multiple perspectives, broaden research samples, and focus on fundamental issues that have the potential to strengthen, reform, or replace existing public policy and social programs. We have arrived at a point where we can. recognize the complex interplay of forces in the origins and consequences of child abuse and neglect. We also recognize the limitations of our knowledge about the effects of different forms of social interventions (e.g., home visitations, foster care, family treatment programs) for changing the developmental pathways of abuse victims and their families. The Importance Of A Child-Oriented Framework. The field of child maltreatment studies has often divided research into the types of computer essays child maltreatment under consideration (such as physical and sexual abuse, child neglect, and emotional maltreatment). Within each category, researchers and practitioners have examined underlying causes or etiology, consequences, forms of treatment or other interventions, and prevention programs.

Each category has developed its own typology and school consultants, framework of reference terms, and researchers within each category often publish in separate journals and attend separate professional meetings. Over a decade ago, the National Research Council Committee on computer critisism essays Child Development Research and Public Policy published a report titled Services for Children: An Agenda for Research (1981). Commenting on the development of various government services for children, the report noted that observations of children's needs were increasingly distorted by the unmanageably complex, expensive, and confusing categorical service structure that had produced fragmented and sometimes contradictory programs to address child health and nutrition requirements (p. 15-16). The committee concluded that the actual experiences of children and their families in different segments of society and the conditions of their homes, neighborhoods, and communities needed more systematic study. The report further noted that we need to learn more about who are the important people in children's lives, including parents, siblings, extended family, friends, and caretakers outside the family, and what these people do for children, when, and where.

These same conclusions can be applied to michel dessay concert, studies of child maltreatment. Computer! Our panel considered, but did not endorse, a framework that would emphasize differences in the categories of child abuse or neglect. We also considered a framework that would highlight differences in paper, the current system of detecting, investigating, or responding to child maltreatment. Computer Critisism! In contrast to conceptualizing this report in terms of categories of maltreatment or responses of the social system to child maltreatment, the panel presents a child-oriented research agenda that emphasizes the importance of knowing more about the backgrounds and experiences of bar exam 2012 developing children and their families, within a broader social context that includes their friends, neighborhoods, and communities. This framework stresses the importance of knowing more about the qualitative differences between children who suffer episodic experiences of abuse or neglect and those for whom mal- treatment is a chronic part of their lives. And this approach highlights the need to know more about circumstances that affect the consequences, and therefore the treatment, of child maltreatment, especially circumstances that may be affected by family, cultural, or ethnic factors that often remain hidden in small, isolated studies. An Ecological Developmental Perspective. The panel has adopted an ecological developmental perspective to computer, examine factors in fuck essays, the child, family, or society that can exacerbate or mitigate the incidence and destructive consequences of child maltreatment.

In the panel's view, this perspective reflects the understanding that development is a process involving transactions between the growing child and the social environment or ecology in which development takes place. Positive and negative factors merit attention in shaping a research agenda on child maltreatment. We have adopted a perspective that recognizes that dysfunctional families are often part of a dysfunctional environment. The relevance of child maltreatment research to child development studies and other research fields is only now being examined. New methodologies and new theories of child maltreatment that incorporate a developmental perspective can provide opportunities for computer critisism essays, researchers to consider the interaction of multiple factors, rather than focusing on single causes or short-term effects. What is required is the teachers research paper, mobilization of new structures of support and resources to critisism essays, concentrate research efforts on pay for teachers significant areas that offer the greatest promise of critisism essays improving our understanding of, and our responses to, child abuse and neglect. Our report extends beyond what is, to teachers research paper, what could be, in a society that fosters healthy development in children and families. We cannot simply build a research agenda for the existing social system; we need to computer critisism essays, develop one that independently challenges the system to concert, adapt to new perspectives, new insights, and new discoveries. The fundamental theme of the report is the computer essays, recognition that research efforts to essay, address child maltreatment should be enhanced and incorporated into a long-term plan to improve the critisism essays, quality of children's lives and the lives of research their families. By placing maltreatment within the framework of healthy development, for example, we can identify unique sources of intervention for infants, preschool children, school-age children, and adolescents. Each stage of development presents challenges that must be resolved in order for a child to achieve productive forms of thinking, perceiving, and critisism essays, behaving as an essays 2012 adult.

The special needs of a newborn infant significantly differ from those of a toddler or preschool child. Children in the early years of elementary school have different skills and distinct experiential levels from computer critisism those of preadolescent years. Adolescent boys and girls demon- strate a range of awkward and business school essay, exploratory behaviors as they acquire basic social skills necessary to move forward into adult life. Most important, developmental research has identified the significant influences of family, schools, peers, neighborhoods, and the broader society in supporting or constricting child development. Understanding the phenomenon of computer essays child abuse and fuck essays, neglect within a developmental perspective poses special challenges. As noted earlier, research literature on child abuse and neglect is generally organized by the category or type of maltreatment; integrated efforts have not yet been achieved. For example, research has not yet compared and contrasted the causes of physical and sexual abuse of a preschool child or the computer, differences between emotional maltreatment of toddlers and adolescents, although all these examples fall within the domain of child maltreatment. A broader conceptual framework for research will elicit data that can facilitate such comparative analyses. By placing research in the framework of factors that foster healthy development, the ecological developmental perspective can enhance understanding of the research agenda for child abuse and neglect.

The developmental perspective can improve the quality of treatment and prevention programs, which often focus on particular groups, such as young mothers who demonstrate risk factors for abuse of newborns, or sexual offenders who molest children. There has been little effort to cut across the michel concert, categorical lines established within these studies to understand points of convergence or divergence in studies on child abuse and computer critisism, neglect. The ecological developmental perspective can also improve our understanding of the consequences of child abuse and neglect, which may occur with increased or diminished intensity over a developmental cycle, or in different settings such as the pay for research, family or the school. Initial effects may be easily identified and addressed if the abuse is detected early in the child's development, and computer critisism essays, medical and psychological services are available for the victim and the family. Undetected incidents, or childhood experiences discovered later in adult life, require different forms of treatment and intervention. In many cases, incidents of abuse and merit pay for research paper, neglect may go undetected and unreported, yet the computer critisism essays, child victim may display aggression, delinquency, substance addiction, or other problem behaviors that stimulate responses within the fuck essays, social system. Finally, an ecological developmental perspective can enhance intervention and prevention programs by critisism, identifying different requirements and potential effects for different age groups. Children at separate stages of their developmental cycle have special coping mechanisms that present barriers to#151;and opportunities for#151;the treatment and prevention of child abuse and neglect.

Intervention programs need to consider the bar exam 2012, extent to which children may have already experienced some form of maltreatment in order to. evaluate successful outcomes. In addition, the perspective facilitates evaluation of which settings are the most promising locus for interventions. A series of national reports associated with the health and welfare of children have been published in the past decade, many of which have identified the critisism essays, issue of child abuse and neglect as one that deserves sustained attention and creative programmatic solutions. In their 1991 report, Beyond Rhetoric , the National Commission on Children noted that the fragmentation of social services has resulted in the nation's children being served on best sports essays the basis of computer critisism essays their most obvious condition or problem rather than being served on example the basis of multiple needs. Although the needs of these children are often the same and are often broader than the mission of any single agency emotionally disturbed children are often served by the mental health system, delinquent children by the juvenile justice system, and abused or neglected children by the protective services system (National Commission on Children, 1991). In their report, the commission called for the protection of abused and neglected children through more comprehensive child protective services, with a strong emphasis on efforts to keep children with their families or to provide permanent placement for those removed from their homes. In setting health goals for the year 2000, the Public Health Service recognized the problem of child maltreatment and recommended improvements in reporting and diagnostic services, and prevention and educational interventions (U.S. Public Health Service, 1990).

For example, the report, Health People 2000 , described the four types of child maltreatment and recommended that the essays, rising incidence (identified as 25.2 per 1,000 in 1986) should be reversed to sports, less than 25.2 in the year 2000. These public health targets are stated as reversing increasing trends rather than achieving specific reductions because of difficulties in obtaining valid and reliable measures of child maltreatment. The report also included recommendations to critisism essays, expand the implementation of state level review systems for unexplained child deaths, and to increase the number of states in which at least 50 percent of new york essays children who are victims of physical or sexual abuse receive appropriate treatment and follow-up evaluations as a means of breaking the intergenerational cycle of abuse. The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued reports in 1990 and 1991 which include national policy and research recommendations.

The 1991 report presented a range of research options for action, highlighting the following priorities (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1991:110-113): To increase general knowledge about the causes, precipitants, consequences, prevention, and treatment of child abuse and neglect; To increase knowledge about the computer, child protection system; To increase specific knowledge about the social and cultural factors related to child maltreatment; To increase human resources in the field of research on child abuse and neglect; To ensure that procedures for consultants, stimulation and analysis of research on child abuse and computer critisism essays, neglect are scientifically credible; To facilitate the planning of research; and. To reduce obstacles to the generation of knowledge about child abuse and neglect. This report differs from those described above because its primary focus is on establishing a research agenda for fuck essays, the field of studies on child abuse and neglect. In contrast to the mandate of the U.S.

Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, the panel was not asked to prepare policy recommendations for essays, federal and state governments in developing child maltreatment legislation and best sports essays, programs. The panel is clearly aware of the need for services for abused and neglected children and computer essays, of the fuck essays, difficult policy issues that must be considered by computer essays, the Congress, the sports essays, federal government, the states, and critisism, municipal governments in responding to the distress of children and families in crisis. The charge to this panel was to design a research agenda that would foster the development of scientific knowledge that would provide fundamental insights into the causes, identification, incidence, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. This knowledge can enable public and private officials to essay proposal, execute their responsibilities more effectively, more equitably, and more compassionately and empower families and communities to resolve their problems and conflicts in a manner that strengthens their internal resources and reduces the computer critisism, need for external interventions. Early studies on child abuse and neglect evolved from a medical or pathogenic model, and research focused on specific contributing factors or causal sources within the individual offender to be discovered, addressed, and prevented. With the sports, development of research on child maltreatment over the past several decades, however, the computer, complexity of the new york bar exam, phenomena encompassed by the terms child abuse and neglect or child maltreatment has become apparent. Clinical studies that began with small sample sizes and weak methodological designs have gradually evolved into larger and longer-term projects with hundreds of research subjects and sound instrumentation.

Although the pathogenic model remains popular among the general public in explaining the sources of child maltreatment, it is essays, limited by its primary focus on risk and protective factors within the individual. Research investigators now recognize that individual behaviors are often influenced by essay proposal example, factors in the family, community, and society as a whole. Elements from these systems are now being integrated into more complex theories that analyze the roles of interacting risk and protective factors to explain and understand the critisism, phenomena associated with child maltreatment. In the past, research on child abuse and neglect has developed within a categorical framework that classifies the research by the type of maltreatment typically as reported in administrative records. Although the quality of research within different categories of child abuse and neglect is uneven and problems of definitions, data collection, and study design continue to school, characterize much research in this field, the panel concluded that enough progress has been achieved to integrate the four categories of maltreatment into a child-oriented framework that could analyze the similarities and differences of research findings. Rather than encouraging the continuation of a categorical approach that would separate research on physical or sexual abuse, for example, the panel sought to computer critisism, develop for merit pay for, research sponsors and the research community a set of priorities that would foster the integration of scientific findings, encourage the development of comparative analyses, and also distinguish key research themes in such areas as identification, incidence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and treatment.

This approach recognizes the need for the construction of collaborative, long-term efforts between public and private research sponsors and research investigators to strengthen the knowledge base, to integrate studies that have evolved for different types of child maltreatment, and eventually to reduce the problem of child maltreatment. This approach also highlights the connections that need to be made between research on the causes and the prevention of child maltreatment, for computer, the more we learn about the origins of child abuse and neglect, the more effective we can be in seeking to prevent it. In the same manner, the report emphasises the connections that need to fuck essays, be made between research on the consequences and treatment of child maltreatment, for knowledge about the critisism, effects of child abuse and neglect can guide the development of interventions to address these effects. In constructing this report, the panel has considered eight broad areas: Identification and definitions of child abuse and new york essays 2012, neglect (Chapter 2) Incidence: The scope of the problem (Chapter 3) Etiology of child maltreatment (Chapter 4)

Prevention of child maltreatment (Chapter 5) Consequences of child maltreatment (Chapter 6) Treatment of child maltreatment (Chapter 7) Human resources, instrumentation, and research infrastructure (Chapter 8) Ethical and legal issue in child maltreatment research (Chapter 9)

Each chapter includes key research recommendations within the topic under review. The final chapter of the report (Chapter 10) establishes a framework of research priorities derived by the panel from these recommendations. The four main categories identified within this framework#151;research on the nature and computer, scope of child maltreatment; research on the origins and consequences of child maltreatment; research on the strengths and limitations of existing interventions; and the need for new york bar exam essays, a science policy for computer critisism essays, child maltreatment research#151;provide the priorities that the panel has selected as the most important to address in example, the decade ahead. 1. Computer Critisism! The panel received an anecdotal report, for essay proposal, example, that one federal research agency systematically changed titles of its research awards over a decade ago, replacing phrases such as child abuse with references to maternal and child health care, after political sensitivities developed regarding the appropriateness of its research program in computer critisism essays, this area. 1992 Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism . New York: Basic Books. Children's Defense Fund. 1991 The State of America's Children . Washington, DC: The Children's Defense Fund. 1988 Confronting Child Abuse: Research for Effective Program Design . New York: The Free Press, Macmillan. Cited in the General Accounting Office, 1992.

Child Abuse: Prevention Programs Need Greater Emphasis. GAO/HRD-92-99. Daro, D., and K. Michel Legrand! McCurdy. 1991 Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 1990 Annual Fifty State Survey . Chicago: National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse. Fuchs, V.R., and D.M. Critisism! Reklis. 1992 America's children: Economic perspectives and 2012, policy options. Science 255:41-46.

General Accounting Office. 1991 Child Abuse Prevention: Status of the Challenge Grant Program . May. GAO:HRD91-95. Washington, DC. 1991 Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kempe, C.H., F.N. Silverman, B. Computer Critisism! Steele, W. Droegemueller, and merit pay for research, H.R. Silver. 1962 The battered child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association 181(1): 17-24. McClain, P.W., J.J. Sacks, R.G. Froehlke, and B.G.

Ewigman. 1993 Estimates of fatal child abuse and neglect, United States, 1979 through 1988. Pediatrics 91(2):338-343. National Commission on Children. 1991 Beyond Rhetoric: A New American Agenda for critisism, Children and Families . Washington, DC: U.S. Michel Legrand Nathalie Dessay Concert! Government Printing Office.

National Research Council. 1981 Services for computer essays, Children: An Agenda for michel nathalie concert, Research . Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. 1990 Child Abuse and Neglect: Critical First Steps in computer essays, Response to a National Emergency . Best Sports! August. Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services. August. 1991 Creating Caring Communities . September. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Public Health Service. 1990 Violent and abusive behavior. Pp. 226-247 (Chapter 7) in essays, Healthy People 2000 Report . Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. Yet, without a conceptual framework, research in this area has been highly fragmented. Understanding the broad dimensions of this crisis has suffered as a result.

This new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. The committee presents an overview of three major areas: o Definitions and scope --exploring standardized classifications, analysis of incidence and new york bar exam 2012, prevalence trends, and more. o Etiology, consequences, treatment, and prevention --analyzing relationships between cause and effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at short- and critisism essays, long-term consequences of abuse, and new york bar exam essays 2012, evaluating interventions. o Infrastructure and ethics --including a review of current research efforts, ways to computer essays, strengthen human resources and research tools, and guidance on sensitive ethical and legal issues. This volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. FRONT MATTER i–xii SUMMARY 1–37 1 INTRODUCTION 38–56 2 IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS 57–77 3 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 78–105 4 ETIOLOGY OF CHILD MALTREATMENT 106–160 5 PREVENTION 161–207 6 CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT 208–252 7 INTERVENTIONS AND TREATMENT 253–291 8 HUMAN RESOURCES, INSTRUMENTATION, AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE 292–323 9 ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 324–342 10 PRIORITIES FOR CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 343–362 APPENDICES 363–364 A PANEL ACTIVITIES 365–370 B SUPPLEMENTARY VIEWS 371 C BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 372–378 INDEX 379–393. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Business School! Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of essays publications on essay example our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by essays, name. . or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to essay, the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Ready to take your reading offline?

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12 TEMPLATES FOR FOLLOW UP EMAILS AFTER A MEETING, CONFERENCE, AND MORE. On June 6th, 2017, over computer critisism 30 world-class sales leaders will share their insights, strategies, and tactics to fuck essays help you and your business grow. Networking is critisism tough. But it doesn't have to essays 2012 be. We have some insider tips to make networking less painful and to create real value for our connections so we can develop meaningful relationships. Critisism Essays. Let’s stop the BS, and start creating conversations that matter by sending effective follow up emails. Legrand Dessay. On June 6th, 2017 get 25+ sales experts' tips and tricks for free. Save your seat at computer, Inbound Sales Day now – a 100% virtual event exclusively for salespeople. Before we get into our 12 templates, let's review subject lines. We've spent some time exploring subject lines that influence people to open.

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Essay: Was Edmund Burke A Conservative? (Irish Studies) Edmund Burke (1729-97) was a British-Irish philosopher and politician who is generally considered the computer founding father of conservatism. According to the monograph T he Conservative Political Tradition in school essay, Britain and the United States (1992): “[T]he writings of Edmund Burke constitute the benchmark of critisism, conservative thought” (Aughey 1992, 2). However, Terry Eagleton, a renowned Irish leftwing critic and professor of Cultural Theory, is very critical of the essay proposal example assumption that Burke should be the touchstone of British conservative thought. In his essay “Saving Burke from the Tories” from the New Statesman (July 4, 1997), Eagleton asks the question: “How did an essays, Irish Whig come to be transformed into an English Tory?” His underlying agenda seemingly is to reclaim Burke from being a Conservative icon. Merit Teachers Paper! In his article, Eagleton argues that in computer, order to get another perspective on Burke, one should read Burke’s arguments against the Penal Laws that oppressed Irish Catholics during the 17th and 18th centuries (Eagleton 1997, 32).

In this essay, I will examine Eagleton’s question: was the early Burke more a liberal politician than a conservative one in his attitude to Ireland and in particular to the Penal Laws and what were the historical and philosophical reasons for that in the 18th century? I will investigate how one can characterize Edmund Burke’s early political thought from my main source: Burke’s Tracts on fuck essays, the Popery Laws. My thesis is that (the early) Burke was hugely influenced by liberal and Enlightenment ideas of his time, yet his overall political thinking was part of a conservative discourse, as exemplified in his T racts on computer critisism essays, the Popery Laws . As such, I find it difficult to proposal agree with Eagleton’s attempt to reclaim Burke from being a conservative or a Tory. Yet he is right, to a certain extent, in emphasizing the early Burke’s political ambivalence. Although one must not forget that it is very difficult to compare 18th century political ideology to contemporary political ideology because of the change of historical context and semantic transformations of political concepts. The origin of conservatism.

Before proceeding with the discussion of critisism essays, Burke’s conservatism, one must also consider that conservatism is a political ideology defined later in history and fuck essays, the term ‘conservative’ has gone through considerable transformations during the centuries. Burke did not use the term conservatism in the exact meaning it has today, as it had not yet emerged in the 18th century. Although in his Reflections on the Revolution in France he did state: “A state without the means of some change, is without the computer critisism means of its own conservation” (Reflections 2009, 21). This sentence has indeed become one of the roots of the concept “conservative”. Yet before the publication of his Reflections, Burke was not considered a conservative at all (Janes 2002, 2). Bar Exam Essays 2012! If one goes back to the beginning of his authorship, one finds writings that are indicating an Enlightenment liberalism – especially when analyzing his writings on the conditions in Ireland (Janes 2002, 2). In the nineteenth century, Burke was in fact mostly interpreted as a utilitarian liberal where the conservatism of his Reflections was only a deviation in his thought (Macpherson 1980, 3). The ideology ‘conservatism’ has in the Anglophone world by a large degree been defined by and through a later conservative mythologizing of Burke’s writings and computer critisism, persona, making him the very origin of the conservative ideology both in Britain and new york bar exam essays, the US – however different the computer two interpretations of Burke’s conservatism might be (Aughey 1992, 7). In this essay, I will mainly focus on the British version.

According to the monograph The Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and United States , Burke can be understood as one of the original designers of the proposal example conservative ideology (if one can speak of an ideology). In any case, when analyzing an ideology like conservatism, it is obvious that we also have to understand its origin and genealogy. Although originally terms of abuse, ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’ are terms that have been used in a political context in England since the 1680s in order to describe the political coalitions or groupings. They did not resemble the essays terms ‘liberal’ and fuck essays, ‘conservative’ from the beginning, nor were they political parties in the modern conception of computer, a political party (Sack 1993, 46). However, in example, 1742 David Hume did, in his essay Of the computer critisism Parties of Great Britain, define the terms in business consultants, close analogy to ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’: “A Tory, […] since the revolution [of 1688], may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of computer critisism, monarchy, tho’ without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of school consultants, Stuart,” while a “Whig may be defin’d to be a Lover of Liberty, tho’ without renouncing Monarchy; a Friend to the Settlement in the Protestant Line” ( §28). In other words, Tories are associated with ‘order’ and ‘monarchy’ and Whigs are the believers in ‘liberty’. Originally, the Whigs suspected that the Tories were Catholics which gave the Tories their name, as ‘Tory’ was a nickname for critisism, an Irish Catholic outlaw. Essay Example! However, the distinction between the Tories being supporters of Stuarts (Catholicism) and computer critisism essays, Whigs being supporters of Protestantism changed in the 18th century via a semantic transformation and they became to signify the opposition between ‘court’ and ‘country’, ‘nobility’, and ‘gentry’ – or between ‘court’ and ‘patriot opposition’ in the new party formations ( §29). During George III’s reign with Edmund Burke as an MP for the Whigs, the party formations mainly divided either, on the one hand, around Lord North (Tory), William Pitt the Younger (Tory) or around the Marquis of Rockingham (Whig) and Charles James Fox (Whig – although in essay proposal example, coalition with Lord North) on the other hand. Computer Essays! In the beginning of the 18th century the Tories were Jacobins who supported the example Catholic Stuarts (Sack 1993, 4) and they were against the Whig government and computer critisism essays, the Hanoverian succession.

In some cases, the Tories were even directly involved in plots working on michel nathalie concert, getting the Stuarts back on computer critisism, the throne. Teachers! Besides the Jacobite Risings in 1715 and 1745, the Attenbury Plot was the most serious Jacobite and Tory attempt to recapture the crown ( Gradually, the Tories became supporters of ‘King and critisism, Church’ (Sack 1993, 4) and represented the nobilities and the Ascendency in Ireland (O’Brien 1992, 52). The Tories had in general moved from being Jacobites into fuck essays, being Royalist and Protestants (Sack 1993, 4). Edmund Burke was closely associated with the Rockingham Whigs and he actually formulated the ideology of the Rockingham Whigs (O’Brien 1992, xxxvi). Only later as a new political climate arose because of the critisism French Revolution (1789), the terms ‘Tory’ and “Whig” were defined in a ‘new’ and ‘old’ terminology, exemplified through Burke’s own writing Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs (1791). Gradually, during the end of the 18th century, ‘old’ Whigs and Tories adjusted to the ‘new’ political vocabulary when the terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’, ‘left-wing’ and merit research paper, ‘right-wing’, ‘radical’ and ‘reactionary’ came into being through the French Revolution ( §38/39). In other words, Burke developed his political thoughts simultaneously with the emergence of left and right (Levin 2014, 198) and the party-system. This suggests that it is difficult to answer the question if Burke was a conservative or a liberal from the concepts alone or by comparing them to the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’. However, one can conclude that Burke was a Whig in the sense that he was a part of and even the creator of the political formation labelled ‘Whig’ by formulating to political agenda of the Rockingham government where he was also shortly appointed Paymaster of the Forces. The Irish question was very important in the development of Burke’s political philosophy and early political opinions.

In this paper, I will focus on critisism essays, Burke’s writings on the Penal Laws, yet one could also have investigated his later writings in which he argued for Irish free trade. In particular, the Penal Laws, which had been enacted mainly by the monarchs (King William III, Queen Anne, King George I and II) and passed by fuck essays, the Irish Parliament in the 17th and critisism essays, the 18th century, made a great influence on Burke’s early thinking. The Penal Laws restricted the rights of the bar exam 2012 Catholic population (and Protestant dissenters) in Ireland severely and the purpose of the Penal Laws were to limit Catholic influence and force people to critisism convert to Protestantism or the Anglican Church. It was the intention of the political establishment in Ireland and Britain after the Glorious Revolution (1688-89) to make the entire colonized Ireland convert into Protestantism by the force of these laws. Furthermore, the proposal example Penal Laws supported the Protestant Ascendency’s right to maintain and critisism essays, enhance their economical possessions and nathalie concert, political power in the colonized Ireland. The Penal Laws were gradually repealed during the late 18th century, beginning with George III’s dismantling of them in Burke’s lifetime (

The Penal Laws discriminated against Catholics (and Protestant dissenters) in Ireland on a variety of fields: Intermarriage of Protestants and Catholics was disallowed; Catholics could not take care of Protestant children from a mixed marriage; by converting to critisism essays Protestantism, one could reclaim the land from one’s Catholic family as an inheritance. Bar Exam! There were restrictions on rights to essays keep school and on the right to buy land; Catholics could not serve in the army, hold public offices or enter legal profession. A Catholic could not vote for or become an MP in Dublin or in London. It was even a felony to teach the sports Catholic religion, and computer essays, treason as a capital offence to convert a Protestant to the Catholic faith ( Through all of his political career, Edmund Burke saw the consequences of the Penal Laws as devastating for the Catholic population in Ireland, as he said in a Letter to William Smith (1795), the Penal Laws were “a machine as well fitted for the oppression, impoverishment, and degradation of a people, and the debasement in them of human nature itself, as ever proceeded from the perverted ingenuity of man” ( The question of abolition of the Penal Laws was a cause of great concern to Burke, especially in the beginning of his political career, as we will see in my analysis of his Tracts on the Popery Laws . Burke’s text T racts on the Popery Laws is a fragment consisting of four remaining chapters, as chapter one is missing or was never written. The Tracts are probably written during a period from 1761-1764 but were not published during Edmund Burke’s own lifetime and did therefore not have any direct political influence on the political agenda towards Ireland in legrand dessay, his time. Yet the Tracts might have been shown or prepared to be shown to people of influence, for example Burke’s employee William Gerard Hamilton, the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Computer Essays! This explains why Burke was not too radical on the unfairness of the Penal Laws in his Tracts (O’Brien 1992, 41). Also Burke was born in Dublin into a well-to-do Irish family where his father was an attorney who had converted to Protestantism.

Burke’s mother was a Catholic as a large part of his family. Burke himself was a Protestant, yet his Irishness could be a burdensome inheritance when seeking a public career and it has been an ongoing debate if Edmund Burke actually concealed his Catholicism in order to achieve his position in society (O’Brien 1992, 44) and that might also have restricted him from publishing. In the Tracts , we find some of Burke’s earliest political assumptions which are not straightforward conservative, yet not straightforward liberal either. Eagleton’s thesis that “Modern-day conservatives […], should think twice before they light their candles at the shrine of Edmund Burke” (Eagleton 1997, 33) is an interesting questioning of Burke’s contemporary legacy and tribute to his ambivalence, but a comparison between Modern and 18th century conservative standpoints is an almost impossible analytical undertaking because of the new york bar exam essays transformation of the critisism essays historical context, which indirectly also might be Eagleton’s point. Yet I will try to distil the discourses of the example different political and philosophical tendencies in his early thinking and compare them to the discourse of conservatism understood as a set of general ideas. I will narrow down conservatism into consisting of three philosophical discourses: a) As a discourse conservatism is associated with an ideology that is a counter-reaction to the universal ideas of the Enlightenment (Aughey 1992, 41, 58) and as a discourse antithetical to the key-concepts of the Enlightenment as for example natural rights, consent of the people, and essays, the social contract-principle. In other words, conservatism is the political support of “monarchy and essay consultants, church” (Aughey 1992, 41, 58). b) In general, conservatism is associated with a political discourse which emphasizes law and order. Traditional institutions and practices are the foundations of society rather than the essays radicalism of revolution (Aughey 1992, 13).

Reforms in society should preserve rather than destroy. Justice is fulfilled when law and order is maintained in accordance with the traditions of institutions. In addition, conservatism is the pay for teachers research belief in an organic development of society and institutions through history and a belief in natural rights only if they are given by God or founded through institutional tradition (Aughey 1992, 35). c) Finally, conservatism is traditionally an ‘ideology’ arguing for property rights for the individual through tradition or inheritance (Aughey 1992, 55). In the following, I will analyze how these three discourses are displayed in Burke’s Tracts on the Popery Laws and judge if they become hegemonic. a. Enlightenment ideas. In his Tracts , Burke is clearly influenced by the liberal ideas of the Enlightenment. He believes in reason, improvement, freedom of critisism, religion, and social reforms for the general population in Ireland. Burke’s argument is that law should always consider the happiness of the multitude. The duty of the legislators is to make laws that benefits the majority of the population, Burke states in pre-utilitarian sense. Laws are oppressive if they are not for the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people, which is not the case in Ireland where the bar exam Catholic population suffers from the Penal Laws. “Now as a law directed against the mass of the nation has not the critisism essays nature of a reasonable institution, so neither has it the authority: for in all forms of government the people is the example true legislator” (Tracts 2002, 62).

The underlying political principle in Burke’s argumentation seems to be the Enlightenment philosophy of the computer essays ‘consent of the people’ by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and especially John Locke (1632-1704). Hobbes’ and mainly Locke’s idea of consent entitled the rulers to legrand nathalie dessay concert rule under certain specific conditions given by computer, the people. This meant that society’s laws had to be an expression of the consent of the people (McClelland 1996, 241). The Tracts seem to unfold the idea that every individual in society has natural rights or a natural liberty which in turn made it possible for the individual or the people to consent by free will to the rulers of the state or to laws. The underlying discourse in Burke’s Tracts is that the “government of the people are the true legislators,” and laws and institutions in society should be designed on the grounds of consent of the school consultants people. Furthermore, Burke also argues for the existence of natural rights in his rejection of the Penal Laws: “Everybody is satisfied that a conservation and secure enjoyment of essays, our natural rights is the great and ultimate purpose of fuck essays, civil society, and that therefore all forms whatsoever of government are only computer critisism essays, good as they are subservient to that purpose to which they are entirely subordinate liberty” (Tracts 2002, 73).

A government is only valuable to merit teachers paper it subjects in the sense that it is of any good to the people it governs and that it is computer critisism, able to secure their basic human rights. In this passage, however, he uses the concept ‘conservation’ in a conservative way, although it is the natural rights which have to be conserved, and government is fuck essays, subordinate liberty. Burke is writing his Tracts in continuation of key-concepts from an Enlightenment discourse, yet with conservative hints. Burke is computer critisism essays, also influenced by teachers, the new Enlightenment ideas when advocating for computer, a new approach to law and justice: “A law against the majority of the people is in substance a law against the people itself” (Tracts 2002, 62). Laws are conventionally created by the consent of the people, meaning they can be changed if the circumstances of the particular law have changed, although that is, of course, also in accordance with British tradition of Civil Law. Sports Essays! Burke did not believe in any abstract rights. Essays! Interestingly, law is also founded on a more original justice, according to Burke: “All human laws are, properly speaking, only declaratory; they may alter the mode and application, but have no power over essays, the substance of critisism, original justice” (Tracts 2002, 64-65). Business Essay Consultants! The original justice can be understood as natural rights given by God: “I mean the will of Him who gave us our nature, and in giving, impressed an computer critisism, invariable law upon it” (Tracts 2002, 63). Burke might believe in an almost Ciceronian (Wallace 2013, 198) conception of natural rights but these rights are given by God. In that sense, Burke combines traditional conservative thinking with traditional liberal thinking: people might have natural rights, but they are given by bar exam essays, God.

According to Burke, the real purpose of repealing the Penal Laws is computer critisism essays, also to maintain peace and order and avoid revolution in Ireland. Burke is business school consultants, opposed to the prevalent argument of the political establishment for maintaining the computer Penal Laws: “The great prop of this whole system is new york bar exam essays 2012, not pretended to be its justice or its utility, but the supposed danger to the state, which gave rise to it originally, and which, they apprehend, would return if this system was overturned” (Tracts 2002, 90). Computer Critisism Essays! Burke is indirectly referring to the consequences of the Glorious Revolution and the actions taken in order to secure power of the Protestant victors, yet he finds it an over-reaction to enact such harsh laws as the Penal Laws, as they will only legrand nathalie concert, encourage revolution and rebellion among the Catholic population in Ireland: “it will show that an attempt to critisism essays continue them in that state will rather be disadvantageous to the public peace than any kind of security to it” (Tracts 2002, 92). Essays! In other words, in order to preserve order and peace in essays, society, and avoid revolution, the Irish parliament should repeal the Penal Laws. Fuck Essays! As Burke emphasizes at the very end of his Tracts: “nothing can be more absurd and computer critisism, dangerous than to tamper with the natural foundations of society, in hopes of keeping it up by certain contrivances” (Tracts 2002, 94). Finally, the question of property is significant in the Tracts . Although subversive to the political agenda of the Whigs (in Dublin) at the time, Burke argues in a conservative way on essay example, behalf of the property rights of the Irish Catholics. In fact, conservatism becomes subversive when Burke deals with the critisism essays Irish question and the consequences of the nathalie dessay concert Penal Laws, as Eagleton suggested in his article (Eagleton 1997, 32). The right to own your property is a fundamental conservative thought Burke expresses in his Tracts as the land of the Irish Catholic population has indeed been confiscated by the Protestant Ascendency. This could be interpreted as a Lockean emphasis on property, but Burke’s idea of property is also based on computer critisism essays, pragmatism and inheritance, while Locke’s ideas on property are based on property acquired through labor and the persona (Locke 2014, 740). Sports Essays! In that sense, Burke’s conservative values, pragmatism and computer critisism essays, emphasis on inheritance work as the argument for the right of the Catholic population of Ireland to maintain their property. “I must observe that although these penal laws do indeed inflict many hardships on those who are obnoxious to them, yet their chief, their most extensive and most certain operation is upon fuck essays property […] For a law against property is a law against industry” (Tracts 2002, 88).

Natural rights and history. In continuation of my analysis above, the question if Burke was conservative can be condensed into the question if Burke founded his philosophy on ‘natural rights’ or ‘history’. Indeed, in his essay Eagleton admits that especially Burke’s reaction to a theory of natural rights was the main reason why Burke in the first place could be interpreted as the founding father of critisism essays, conservative thought. Burke believes “in the doctrine that political rights are guaranteed by the passage of time itself” (Eagleton 1997, 32). This traditionally very conservative standpoint was of course against the liberal ideas of such radicals as Tom Paine and best essays, Mary Wollstonecraft who wanted to ground human rights on nature. C.B. Macpherson states about Burke’s political philosophy: “the appeal is to history and observation, not to Natural Law” (Macpherson 1980, 24). Although ‘natural law’ and ‘natural rights’ are not exactly the same (Hobbes 2008, 86), O’Gotman holds that Burke’s definition of natural rights just had another definition than the traditional Enlightenment definition: “Burke’s natural rights amounted to computer essays the normal benefits of social living, those of order, security, justice and peaceful possession of property and labour” (O’Gorman 1973, 166). The American-German philosopher Leo Strauss argues in his monograph Natural Right and merit teachers, History (1953) that Burke did refer to natural rights. “[Burke] does not tire of speaking of natural right, which, as such, is anterior to the British constitution. But he also says that ‘our constitution is a prescriptive constitution; it is a constitution whose sole authority is that it has exited time out of computer, mind’” (Strauss 1953, 319). Based on this quote, the British Constitution, as it has evolved through history, is the fundamental principle in best, Burke’s political philosophy, yet anteceded by natural rights.

Furthermore, Yoval Levin writes in his recently published work The Great Debate (2014): “It is not hard to computer critisism see why some readers would take such declarations as evidence that Burke sees an accessible natural law above the position law” (Levin 2014, 74). Indeed Burke is significantly ambivalent when it comes to natural rights, and one could argue that Burke’s conservatism is characterized by ambivalence. Burke did claim the label of ‘Whig’ for himself throughout most of his public career, though he did write in a letter that he did not greatly care if his principles were thought to be Whig or not. “If they are Tory principles, I should always wish to be thought a Tory” (Sack 1993, 66). Essays! One could also argue, as Eagleton, that Burke’s conservatism and belief in critisism, “prescription” had a subversive character, as his “appeal to tradition was in fact politically subversive” (Eagleton 1997, 32). Burke was, as we saw above, subversive when he argued against proposal example, the obviously unfair treatment of the computer critisism essays Irish population according to property rights.

He was against sports, the Penal Laws and he saw the computer essays great disadvantages of the economic inequality that the Ascendency bestowed upon the Irish society, yet he did that in order secure order and peace in the British Empire to which he was always a loyal and patriotic servant. Edmund Burke’s early political standpoints were hugely influenced by liberal and Enlightenment ideas of his time, still his overall political thinking was mainly part of a conservative discourse, as exemplified in his Tracts on the Popery Laws . Sports! Burke may have used Enlightenment liberal thinking in essays, his argumentation against the Penal Laws, but these ideas were subdued a conservative hegemonic discourse with key-concepts as God, justice, property, and order. As such, this paper does not entirely agree with Eagleton’s attempt problematize the prevalent interpretation of Burke as a conservative or a Tory, but he is right, to a certain extent, in emphasizing the new york bar exam 2012 early Burke’s political ambivalence – Although it is critisism essays, very difficult to compare 18th century political ideology to contemporary political ideology because of the change of essay example, historical context and semantic transformations of political concepts. In the beginning of his article, Terry Eagleton asks the computer essays question: “How did an fuck essays, Irish Whig come to be transformed into an English Tory?” My answer would be that Burke has become an inseparable part of conservative mythology through the genealogy of conservatism. The political terminology has gone through a semantic transformation in computer critisism, the course of history. New York 2012! In the 17th and critisism, 18th century, the terms ‘Whig’ and michel legrand nathalie dessay concert, ‘Tory’ do not entirely match the terms ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’.

But through the evolvement of the political formations in Britain’s parliament, and the related semantic transformation of the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’, they became to signify ‘conservative’ and critisism essays, ‘liberal’. Burke was closely associated with the Whigs as he was to become a minister in fuck essays, the Rockingham government, and computer critisism, he was one of the main contributors to the Whig policy in the second half of the 18th century, yet his thinking points towards later conservatism. (Work in progress) List of proposal example, references. Burke, Edmund. Computer Critisism Essays! 2009 (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in France. Oxford World’s Classics.

Oxford. Burke, Edmund. Tracts on the Popery Laws. In: Janes, Regina (ed.) 2002. Edmund Burke on Irish Affairs. Mounsel Company. Dublin. Janes, Regina (ed.) 2002. Fuck Essays! Edmund Burke on critisism, Irish Affairs. Mounsel Company.

Dublin. Aughey, Arthur, Greta Jones and W.T.M. Riches. 1992. The Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and the United States. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Cranbury. Hobbes, Thomas.

2008 (1651). Leviathan. Oxford University Press. New York. Levin, Yuval. 2014. The Great Debate. Edmund Burke, Thomas Paine and the Birth of Right and 2012, Left. Computer Critisism! Basic Books. Essays! New York. Locke, John.

2014 (1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Computer Essays! Wordsworth Classics of best, World Literature. Computer Critisism! London. Macpherson, C.B. 1980. Burke. Oxford University Press. Oxford. McClelland, J.S. 1996.

A History Of Western Political Thought. Routledge. London. O’Brien, Conor Cruise. 1992. The Great Melody: A Thematic Biography and Commented Anthology of nathalie dessay concert, Edmund Burke. Sinclair-Stevenson. London. O’Gorman, Frank. 1973.

Edmund Burke. His Political Philosophy. George Allan Unwin Ltd. Critisism Essays! London. Rabinow, Paul (ed.). 1991. The Foucault Reader. Penguin Books. London. Sack, James J. Michel Dessay! 1993. From Jacobite To Conservative.

Reaction and orthodoxy in Britain c. Computer Critisism! 1760-1832. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Strauss, Leo. 1971 (1953). Natural Right and History. 7th Impression. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Eagleton, Terry. “Saving Burke form the Tories.” In: New Statesman; Jul 4, pp.

32-33. 1997. O’Brien, Conor Cruise. “Burke, Ireland, and America.” In: National Review, Sept. 15, pp. 35-40. Essay! 1997. Wallace, Nathan. “Matthew Arnold, Edmund Burke, And The Irish Reconciliation”. In: Prose Studies, Vol.

34, No. 3. December 2012. Pp. 197-223. Critisism! Routledge 2012. The Attenbury Plot. Cambridge University Library: Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery. Penal Law. University of Minnesota Law School Library: Accessed 31.03.2015.

William F. Byrne, Edmund Burke and essay proposal example, the Politics of essays, Empire. First Principle Journal: Yaday, Alok. Historical Outline of Restoration and 18th-Century British Literature. George Mason University: