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1010 words essay on the Relations Between Art And Life. Art is life, not something to be placed in a shrine and substituted for fences essays, life. Actually, art is an effort to create, besides the real world, a more human entity. Moreover, a true work of art is but a shadow of the divine perfection. Ip Address To Computer! Indeed, even those who regard art as an ideal and artists as idealists cannot deny that art is a faithful mirror of the life and civilization of fences analysis essays, a period. Everyone concedes what Nehru said that Indian civilization of the past periods was full of life; it created things of beauty, the arts flourished, and the echoes reached distant countries. Nehru was also stating the reality when he said that the art of a people is a true mirror of their minds.
Both arts and crafts have indeed close connections with life; there is no line of demarcation between arts, crafts and grading essays software life when the arts have really been an integral constituent of the essays people's daily existence. Alcohol In College! Obviously, it is essays, impossible to separate art, or the arts, from life; they are a part and parcel of it. The idea can also be expressed by saying that when life declines and the standards of living deteriorate, art also declines. On the other hand, when life marks an upward swing and shows all-round improvement, such a un swing inevitably gets reflected in the arts. It is during the regimes of eminent influential kings and emperors, Maharajas and Nawabs in history, especially during the essay Golden Age, that the arts, such as painting, music, since and crafts of various types prospered.
Who bothers about art and the artists when there is poverty and destitution all round, when the rulers are constantly engaged in analysis essays internecine warfare or struggles for power during which art is the first casualty? This is also true of the alcohol abuse essay age of exploitation, colonial, imperial or other. To say that art is only confined to the artist the painter, the sculptor, the dancer, the musician, the fences analysis essays singer or other craftsman is to take a needlessly rigid and restricted view. Real art is all-round illumination and adds stature to life. The object of art, it has been well said, is to war essay titles crystallize human emotions into thought, and then fix it in a concrete form. After all, painter thinks, reflects for a long time, tries to imagine something good and great, has a vision or a dream, and analysis then draws a picture, a drawing or moulds clay or metal into a figure he has dreamed or thought of. Revolutionary War Essay! Since dreams, thoughts and visions are all a part of our life, art is also very much a part of our existence. Even the illusions, which often get reflected in fences essays masterpieces of art, can be entertained only by comparison essay, human beings of talent and cannot, therefore be separated from life. An unfortunate aspect of life in the modern world is that misconceptions about art and artists, and about their role, have been spreading fast.
Anyone, it is said, who finds a way to make a lamp or some other artistic piece out of a Camp-Cola bottle gets more protection than a humble man who creates a work of real art. There is indeed a distortion of values in the world of art; really talented artists often starve because of the fences analysis lack of alcohol abuse, patronage by those who lead a life devoted to essays un artistic activity. An artist who revolts against man's fate in intern essays life may or may not get adequate encouragement. Moreover, what passes for art in today's world may in reality be fraud or cheap imitation of a masterpiece. Again, is it not true that the fences analysis measure of the creator is the amount of life he puts into his work. A real work of art has to be full of life; if it is lifeless and grading essays software soulless or dull, it evidently lacks life. Who can deny that a painting or a piece of fences analysis essays, sculpture has great appeal if it is life-like, emanating vigour and activity and if it inspires human feelings? Besides, the real artist is he who does not cater to cheap tastes or panders to the low, in human or base instincts of men and intern essays women. If an artist sells himself for the baser things, he is a traitor to art.
True art grasps, rediscovers and reveals to us reality which human beings tend to forget and from which we often seek to fences analysis essays get away. Often the reality is harsh; even that serves as a reminder of what we are prone to ignore. When the reality is pleasant and artistic creations please, we begin to appreciate art, not otherwise. Art, like most human beings, is temperamental; it is no secret that artists, poets and musicians work when they get the requisite inspiration. Poe Vs Contrast! Dictation and imposition of authority are what art and artists firmly resent. In this sense art is an intense form of individualism. Fences Analysis Essays! Even so, art should never seek popularity; on the contrary the how to ip address people should try to value art and make themselves artistic as far as they can.
Life itself is an art, and though artists and poets may seem visionaries, they have a specific and distinct role to play. The irony, however, is that if art and artists continue to live in a world of analysis, their own, far removed from life, they may have to intern essays starve unless they are able to get permanent and fences analysis affluent patrons. Art and artists are now being patronized and encouraged by the Government of India and assign to computer the State Governments. But official patronage alone cannot be a lasting guarantee of the prosperity of art; the people themselves must learn to appreciate art in whichever form it comes before them. Life itself is an art. The swing of the pendulum may raise art to the skies or bring it down crashing to the earth. Experimentation is what art thrives on, and such experimentation, as in science, ultimately proves highly beneficial to society. The progress in art reveals the progress of a country and fences essays its innermost character. The relationship is, therefore, intimate and is becoming increasingly obvious.
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and advances in essays, communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and revolutionary, peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in Science and analysis, Technology , April 1968 . Published on KurzweilAI.net November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is a rather startling thing to say, but it is our conclusion. To Computer! As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of a computer what normally might have taken a week. We shall talk more about the fences essays mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were all in the same room.
But for all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of revolutionary titles miles apart and communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A communications engineer thinks of communicating as transferring information from fences analysis one point to in college, another in codes and signals. But to communicate is analysis essays more than to send and to intern essays, receive. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and record from fences essays each other? Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to do something nontrivial with the information they send and receive.
And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to revolutionary titles, using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. To the people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by the customer’s call. Fences Analysis Essays! We want to how to assign ip address, emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the analysis mutually reinforcing aspect of language and literature communication-the part that transcends “now we both know a fact that only fences analysis essays one of us knew before.” When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We want to talk about the creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by all. Such a medium is at hand–the programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the nature and value of alcohol abuse essay communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and analysis essays, the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to revolutionary war essay titles, the processes for making use of the fences analysis essays resources.
Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an effect on communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and with the aid of a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to communication. Any communication between people about the same thing is software a common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of analysis abstractions formulated initially in the mind of intern essays one of the persons who would communicate, and if the fences analysis essays concepts in the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is titles no common model and no communication. By far the fences analysis most numerous, most sophisticated, and most important models arc those that reside in men’s minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings. Assign Ip Address To Computer! It will not stand still for careful study. It cannot be made to repeat a run.
No one knows just how it works. It serves its owner’s hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. Fences Essays! It has access only to the information stored in one man’s head. It can be observed and manipulated only by one person. Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by comparison essay a single mind. Fences Analysis! Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to intern essays, the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of accord.
The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as “cooperative modeling”–cooperation in the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models? When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the same thing. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an outline–because it can be seen by fences analysis all the communicators–serves as a focus for discussion. It changes the nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to provide facilities for to computer externalizing models. Is it really seeing the expression in the other’s eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and modify external models? In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication.
Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the fences formulative phase of a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and ip address, its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and future states of affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the fences primary data the participants bring to alcohol abuse, the meeting are in undigested and uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of fences data are interesting and important in war essay, and of themselves. And they are more than files of facts and recurring reports. They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individual’s data are reflected in his mental model. Getting his colleagues to fences analysis essays, incorporate his data into in college their models is the essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place.
If, at fences, the outset, their two models were similar in structure but different simply in the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the easiest and most frequent kind of intern essays communication. If the two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the achievement of communication would be signaled by structural changes in one of the models or in both of them. We might conclude that one of the communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to begin to analysis, understand the on english and literature other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of many interacting minds is a more complicated process. Suggestions and recommendations may be elicited from all sides. The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of fences analysis rules for solving problems. That, of course, is the essence of creative interaction.
The process of maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and disposition of assign ip address information. The project meeting we have just described is representative of a broad class of human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from analysis essays another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for essays language in the fences analysis essays main; they process payroll checks, keep track of bank balances, calculate orbits of space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of intern essays debit and fences analysis essays, credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to essay, make coherent pictures of not well understood situations.
We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer. That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in detail and broad enough in scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the essays area contained six television monitors which displayed the alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in intern essays, the building but remotely controlled from analysis a keyboard and a set of electronic pointer controllers called “mice.” Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of grading software a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and his outline appeared on fences, the screens as he talked–providing a broad view of his own model. Many of the war essay outline statements contained the names of fences analysis particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to appear in detail on the screens, for, from the beginning of the project, its participants had put their work into the computer system’s files. So the meeting began much like any other meeting in revolutionary war essay titles, the sense that there was an overall list of agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the depth and breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to answer questions of relevance and interrelationship.
A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to analysis essays, thumb through the speaker’s files as the speaker talks–and thus check out incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to simplify and draw conclusions. It is frightening to realize how early and drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to communicate–to understand–requires a huge investment. Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet. But someday governments may not be able not to afford it. For, while we have been talking about the communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an aspect of communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. As nearly as we can judge from reports of recent international crises, out of the software hundreds of alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the “game,” on the average only a few, and never more than a few dozen could be considered, and only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to model what the other side might be up to–but modeling takes time, and essays, the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in a cooperative effort, it is war essay clear that we need to be able to model faster and to greater depth.
The importance of fences improving decision-making processes–not only in intern essays, government, but throughout business and the professions–is so great as to warrant every effort. As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the kind of communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify. Analysis Essays! We have tried to say why one must oversimplify. But we should not oversimplify the how to ip address to computer main point of fences analysis this article. We can say with genuine and abuse in college essay, strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and its data, constitutes the dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the fences essays art of essays modeling and that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of analysis essays communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the hawthorne comparison contrast essay computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: “Buy a computer and your communication problems will be solved.” What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of working on-line and interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and facilitation and “power” than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and the primitiveness of analysis their software. Many of us are therefore confident (some of us to the point of religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in alcohol abuse essay, communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the application of digital computers to communication.
However, the essays function they want computers to intern essays, implement is the analysis essays switching function. Computers will either switch the communication lines, connecting them together in intern essays, required configurations, or switch (the technical term is “store and fences essays, forward”) messages. The switching function is important but it is not the one we have in grading, mind when we say that the fences essays computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the modeling function, not the switching function. Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to facilitate the modeling function, to make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out separately and have become separately institutionalized. There are strong intellectual and social benefits to be realized by the melding of these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and intern essays, administrative obstacles in the way of any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources.
We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computer–communication among people at consoles located in the same room or on the same university campus or even at distantly separated laboratories of the same research and fences analysis, development organization. This kind of communication–through a single multiaccess computer with the aid of grading essays telephone lines–is beginning to foster cooperation and fences analysis essays, promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by messenger or mail. Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere “data”–they include procedures and revolutionary, processes for structuring and essays, manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and share with the aid of the tools and hawthorne contrast essay, techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to concentrate and analysis, share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of data–and documents–and most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of “critical mass,” as it applies to cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution. Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in how to to computer, one place to fences essays, form a team, and you have trouble, for essays software the most creative people are often not the analysis essays best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to hawthorne comparison, keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of problem solver.
The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. Fences Essays! But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a week’s communicating. There has to be some way of facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is no way, with a single computer and individual communication lines to several geographically separated consoles, to avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission. Part of the revolutionary war essay economic difficulty lies in our present communications system. When a computer is essays used interactively from revolutionary titles a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and fences analysis, not very frequent. They do not require continuous access to a telephone channel; a good part of the time they do not even require the full information rate of such a channel. Intern Essays! The difficulty is that the common carriers do not provide the kind of service one would like to have–a service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and not be charged when one is not using the channel.
It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for one’s individual use for fences analysis essays a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for most purposes far superior to interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in essays on english language and literature, faster bursts–more difficult to handle efficiently with the conventional common-carrier facilities. It is perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of computer systems and the services supplied by the common carriers, for most of the analysis essays common-carrier services were developed in support of voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating. It appears that the best and quickest way to overcome them-and to move forward the development of interactive communities of geographically separated people-is to set up an experimental network of essays language multiaccess computers. Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the computers in most instances are from families of machines compatible in both software and fences essays, hardware, and they are in the same location.
More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the type described by David  and Licklider . On English Language And Literature! Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at present perhaps only as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in several ways out ahead of the rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of essays their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the concept of man-computer interaction and the technology of interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the in college essay usefulness and who sense the fences analysis essays impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Third, the communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to intern essays, use them. And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative. In the half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other.
They are producing large and growing resources of programs, data, and analysis, know-how. And Literature! But we have seen only the beginning. There is much more programming and data collect ion–and much more learning how to fences, cooperate–to be done before the full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Indeed, the sonic barrier in essays on english language, the development of such systems is complexity. These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of analysis essays open-endedness, by rendering more services, and above all by providing facilities that foster a working sense of community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and flexibility of soft ware resources–the “general purposeness”–of the interactive multiaccess systems of the essay System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and Lexington, Mass.–which have been collectively serving about fences analysis essays, a thousand people for several years.
The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over a year they have been preparing for the transition to alcohol, a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the current systems, and to offer them–through new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displays–the fast, smooth interaction required for truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for a network of computers as for a single computer. Today the on-line communities are separated from essays one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered. But now the move is on to interconnect the separate communities and essays on english language and literature, thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is essays that interconnection will make available to intern essays, all the members of fences analysis essays all the communities the programs and data resources of the entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical person’s interaction with this network, of interconnected computers.
The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memory–core, disks, drums, and tapes–and many consoles for essays the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the fences analysis user’s commands, the handling of his files, and in college essay, graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machine’s language to use the system effectively), and fences, programs and data created by the users themselves. The collection of assign ip address to computer people, hardware, and software–the multiaccess computer together with its local community of users–will become a node in analysis essays, a geographically distributed computer network. Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed. For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a “message processor.” The message processors of all the nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. The large multi-access computer at each node is connected directly to the message processor there. Through the network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another.
And through them, all the members of the supercommunity can communicate–with other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of those resources. Grading Essays Software! The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. The links among the message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by common carrier. This allows the linking of the fences analysis message processors to abuse, be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of fences analysis essays as a short sequence of “bits” flowing through the network from war essay titles one multiaccess computer to another. It consists of two types of information: control and data. Control information guides the transmission of data from source to analysis essays, destination. Software! In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the fences analysis use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of their “bits” were mutilated at one point or another along the way.
In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and correctors. Today, programs created at one installation on a given manufacturer’s computer are generally not of much value to users of a different manufacturer’s computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of a distant program’s existence, one has to revolutionary war essay, get it, understand it, and fences essays, recode it for his own computer. Alcohol Abuse! The cost is fences essays comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do. On a national scale, the annual cost is enormous. Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on the other hand, a person at one node will have access to programs running at essay, other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the fences analysis essays AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the war essay TX-2 computer across the continent at analysis, the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of a unique list-processing program at comparison essay, SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to translate for analysis essays use on the TX-2. A network of intern essays 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of sharing one another’s resources, is now being planned by the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors. The system’s way of managing data is crucial to the user who works in interaction with many other people. Fences Analysis! It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files.
Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the “keys” to each such file, exercising his option to exclude all others from any kind of access to it; or to permit anyone to “read” but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to execute but not read it; and so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the how to new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features. In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and privacy of information are subjects of analysis essays active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve.
In a multiaccess system, the number of consoles permitted to how to assign ip address to computer, use the fences analysis essays computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by assign to computer the users’ jobs, and may be varied automatically as the load changes. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of these users may work with low-level “assembly” languages while others use higher-level “compiler” or “interpreter” languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and graphical systems. And so on.
But back to our hypothetical user. Analysis Essays! He seats himself at abuse, his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and “logs in” by presenting his name, problem number, and password to fences, the monitor program. Intern Essays! He calls for either a public program, one of analysis his own programs, or a colleague’s program that he has permission to use. The monitor links him to it, and he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the program) needs service from a program at another node in the network, he (or it) requests the how to ip address service by specifying the location of the appropriate computer and the identity of the program required.
If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. Essays! The request is translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by how to assign the remote computer’s monitor. Now the user (or his local program) and essays, the remote program can interchange information. When the alcohol abuse in college information transfer is complete, the user (or his local program) dismisses the remote computer, again with the fences aid of the message processors. In a commercial system, the remote processor would at this point record cost information for use in how to assign ip address to computer, billing. The mention of fences essays billing brings up an important matter. Computers and long-distance calls have “expensive” images. Alcohol Abuse Essay! One of the analysis essays standard reactions to the idea of “on-line communities” is: “It sounds great, but who can afford it?”
In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the essays cost of computer-facilitated communication, over and above the salaries of the communicators, are the cost of the consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and supporting software. In each category, there is a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the hourly component costs per user, we arrived at the following: $1 for a console, $5 for one man’s share of the analysis services of a processor, 70 cents for storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the assumption that one’s console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the other items are assumed to be shared with others, and alcohol abuse essay, experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to somewhat greater utilization than the 160 hours per month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and the personal files are items used also in individual problem solving and decision making.
Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the fences working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of 160 hours per month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour. Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is set up between Boston, Mass., and Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the intern essays cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per analysis essays minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll.
Compare it with the cost of travel: If one flies from Boston to Washington in the morning and back in how to assign to computer, the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in fences analysis essays, return for about $64 in air and essays on english and literature, taxi fares plus the spending of four of his early morning and evening hours en route. Fences Essays! If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for the eight hours in Washington is $128-again $16 per hour. Or look at it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per hour then, according to software, our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now. Thus we have some basis for fences essays arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. But we must admit that the figure of $16 per hour sounds high, and we do not want to let our discussion depend upon intern essays, it. Fortunately, we do not have to, for the system we envision cannot be bought at this moment. The time scale provides a basis for analysis genuine optimism about the cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to bring the intern essays first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity. Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target.
In the computer field, the cost of analysis a unit of processing and the cost of intern essays a unit of storage have been dropping for two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Three halvings would take the cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per hour. Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in cost, lead us to fences analysis essays, expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. The only grading essays software areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission. In the console field, there is plenty of essays competition; many firms have entered the how to ip address to computer console sweepstakes, and analysis essays, more are entering every month. Essays Language! Lack of competition is not the problem. The problem is the problem of the chicken and the egg–in the factory and in the market. If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the cost of fences essays a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market.
If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. But at present there is neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for on english language interactive on-line communication. In the field of transmission, the difficulty may be lack of competition. At any rate, the analysis cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the cost of processing and storage. Alcohol Abuse! Nor is it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the advent of satellites has affected the cost picture by less than a factor of two. That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the fences analysis distance is very great) transmission cost is revolutionary not now the dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in six years it will be the fences analysis dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and is the revolutionary war essay strongest damper to our hopes for near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities. But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like?
In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest . In each field, the overall community of interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data. In each geographical sector, the total number of users–summed over fences analysis essays all the fields of interest–will be large enough to support extensive general-purpose information processing and titles, storage facilities. All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. The whole will constitute a labile network of networks–ever-changing in both content and configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of analysis essays sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. Each secretary’s typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network. You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to which they should be linked–and perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to link your consoles together.
You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient. When you do visit another person with the object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbart’s meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in war essay titles, computer-facilitated teleconferences and fences analysis, much less en route to meetings. A very important part of poe vs hawthorne essay each man’s interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER. The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is fences analysis one, an “on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder,” a complex of abuse computer programs and data that resides within the network and acts on behalf of its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. Analysis! “You are describing a secretary,” you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from taking notes) on what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. Comparison Contrast Essay! It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances.
It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to essays, which of your personal files. It will know your organization’s rules pertaining to proprietary information and the government’s rules relating to security classification. Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other people’s OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by ip address to computer you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through “learning” based on its experience in your service. Available within the network will be functions and services to which you subscribe on analysis, a regular basis and others that you call for when you need them. In the former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of on english language information in your field of specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc.
In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in essays, the history of networking- systematized and coherent; you will be able to get along in titles, one basic language up to the point at which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work “at the console” and “through the network,” telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of essays that fact, and of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very great–both on the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for intern essays the on-line individual because the fences people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by how to assign ip address to computer commonality of interests and goals than by essays accidents of proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to alcohol abuse, one’s own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of fences essays representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the war essay levels of their structure at the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and fences analysis essays, rewarding. War Essay! And, fourth, there will be plenty of opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of analysis information, with all its fields and disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to help him explore. For the society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will “to be on abuse in college essay, line” be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of “intelligence amplification,” the network may exaggerate the essays discontinuity in the spectrum of on english language intellectual opportunity.
On the other hand, if the fences essays network idea should prove to how to to computer, do for education what a few have envisioned in fences analysis essays, hope, if not in concrete detailed plan, and if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure. Unemployment would disappear from the face of the earth forever, for revolutionary consider the magnitude of the task of adapting the network’s software to all the new generations of computer, coming closer and closer upon the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is caught up in fences, an infinite crescendo of revolutionary war essay on-line interactive debugging. Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in Boston and Taylor in fences essays, Washington. Roland B. Wilson drew the on english cartoons to accompany the original article.  Edward E. David, Jr., “Sharing a Computer,” International Science and Technology , June, 1966.
 J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Partnership,” International Science and Technology , May, 1965. Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web. I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by J.C.R. Fences Analysis Essays! Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary.
This is intern essays thus the right place for his work to be on view. was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to this site for more research. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.
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1600 Words Essay on Teenage (free to read) Teenage is the period of twilight between childhood and youth. Fences Analysis. So far as physic cal appearances are concerned, the war essay titles period of childhood is receding and analysis essays, the youth is approaching. Psychologically, however, it is a great mess. Many of the tendencies and behaviour patterns of the childhood persist and create embarrassment for the teenager as well as for his parents. He appears a grown up to the outsiders, but many a time, he clings to his mother or father for support and fortifies his arguments with my father says or my mother tells which provokes an amused and at times a sarcastic response from the outsiders. Alcohol In College Essay. Teenage is the time when a personality is struggling to be born.
This is, however, a peculiar struggle. It is not against the enemies or the outside world alone. It is an internal, a psychological struggle against a part of one's self. Analysis Essays. It is also, at time, a struggle against one's-mother or father as also against those near and software, dear ones whom one has been used to take for fences analysis essays, granted for unconditional support. After the initial turbulence of early childhood and constant conflicts of poe vs comparison contrast essay middle childhood, one becomes a good child regularly going to school and adopting a pattern of behaviour approved by fences analysis essays, one's parents. The school report of a promising and well behaved student has given a sense of essay relief and joy to the parents.
One has grown accustomed to the patronizing way the relations treat him and fences analysis, does all little things he is asked to do by elders. At what point of time, puberty steps into one's life one does not know. But with its onset, almost everything - parents, siblings, peers, and strangers - gets transformed never to be the same again. Unreserved awe and respect for the parents is the first casualty of adolescence. When the adolescent sees his businessman father making extortions from his client or cheating the Income Tax Authorities, he is shocked. Intern Essays. His father has been exhorting him since his early childhood that one should be fair to the fellow citizens and abide by the law of one's country. The hypocrisy of fences analysis essays elders, mainly his own parents, shatters his belief in the goodness of the world. When the phone bell rings at lunch time, the comparison contrast adolescent is told by his father to analysis essays, tell the caller that the father is not at home.
The value of language and literature speaking the truth no longer remains an article of faith with the child. Anju adolescent has to interact with his neighbours, school-mates, teachers and grocer un aided by the presence of analysis his partners as has been the grading essays case in his childhood, and hell finds the selfish attitudes and behaviour patterns of adults baffling and disturbing. He learns to his great consternation that he cannot take the world for analysis essays, granted (as he has been doing as a child), not even his own brothers and sisters. Teenage is the period of baffling uncertainties and glaring inconsistencies. At times, an adolescent idolizes his father for all the love and comforts he has provided him even at the cost of essays great personal inconvenience. Fences Analysis Essays. His father cancelled a plea sun trip to nurse him when he was sick. He rejected an attractive job offer to remain intuit town so that his child could continue to essay, study in the prestigious school he had joined since his studies began. He has great love and admiration for his father. But he becomes; resentful of his father's attitude when he does not agree to pay Rs.
5000/- for a triple Lakshadweep along with his school mates. The father's arguments that he cannot afford expenditure do not cut any ice as only last year he has spent Rs. 5000/- on fences analysis his (father's sister's marriage. He keeps on sulking and comes to believe that his father does nil want him to enjoy the good things of life. Teenage is the period of wild excitement and bitter disappointment. Language. Loving attention paid by a young person of the opposite sex throws the teenager into a state of raptures. He treasures the words and loving gaze of the admirer. It tickles him while reading or working. He hums the tunes of popular lyrics on love-themes or the listens the loud music. He tries to identify himself with characters of movies and fiction. Al of a sudden, the beloved walks away from his life.
She has gone to another town thousands of miles away. She never contacts him on telephone or through letter. Is she a cheat or am! Undeserving?, the teenager asks himself. He looks at his fact umpteen times in fences essays the mirror. May be the admirer has fallen in love with a more beautiful person. Essays. The teenager laments his lot. He tries to pour his grief in poems and songs.
He becomes a poet emotionally if not technically. The teenager wants to hold tight to the certainties and security of his childhood, but at analysis the same time wants full freedom to undertake adventures and enter into relationships with other individuals without the approval or even knowledge of his parents. He resents bitterly the enquiries regarding his movements and the persons he is friendly with. He shows a temper tantrum when he is advised by intern essays, his father not to read comics or watch Television serials. He is aghast at the idea that his parents still treat a 15 year old as irresponsible. He knows when to analysis essays, study and when to assign to computer, relax. His parents have no business to tell him what to do and analysis essays, when. The knowledge that his father and mother watch late night movies when he is studying makes him loath the hypocrisy of grading software his parents. Teenage is equally problematic for the teenager as well as his parents. He finds the essays world full of wonder and revolutionary titles, excitement. He wants to partake of the fences sensuous enjoy mint of essays and literature sights and sports.
He wants emotional as well as financial support of his parents for fences essays, pursing his interests. The middle aged parents on the other hand, want to preserve whatever monetary resources they have for the education of their sons and alcohol abuse, daughters and essays, their marriages. They cannot spare money for films and sports. They would keep on haranguing their leenage-children on grading software the importance of systematic studies if they are to analysis, make their nark in life. They would not explain at abuse length their financial condition. The teenager would become convinced that the parents are indifferent and callous to him and would not, like to see their children happy and contented experiences of analysis a teenage girl I, too, had a mixed bag of my teenage problems. Having been born a girl has compounded my difficulties. First of alcohol abuse essay all, 1 was disgusted with the insistence of my mother that I should stop wearing skirts, blouse and half pants in favour of fences essays full length Iwar-kurta. I found it the most unreasonable constraint and language and literature, till today am not completely reconciled to it. Secondly, my parents do not like me to go to a cinema-theatre with my friends to watch a movie.
I am, therefore, deprived of great fun and excitement. This restraint appears all the more abominable as I have often found my father and mother dilating ypon the wonderful spectacle of movies like San^am and Mughal-e-azam, which they themselves watched in the cinema hall. Many a time, I have been prevented by fences analysis, my mother to intern essays, go for picnic with my friends on fences analysis essays scooters and motor-bikes. Abuse Essay. I have always to be escorted by my brother or a 'cousin while I go for an outing. It only analysis, shows how immature and unreliable I am in Ithe eyes of my parents. I do not expect from them such low opinion of me. The biggest problem I faced as a teenager was when I opted for engineering subjects and declared that I wanted to be an aeronautics engineer. My mother would not let me appear for the J.E.E. for l.l.T. She insisted that I should prepare for admission into M.B.B.S. as that was a more respected profession for women. The wrangle went on for months and I had my way only when my uncle, my mother's brother, intervened on my behalf. I recollect that I too, have behaved abnormally as a teenager.
I never tolerated the attention paid by my mother to grading, young boys and admiring looks my father often bestowed on young girls. I found the sight revolting. It was only after reading a little bit of psychology that I have persuaded myself that too much repression of feelings is not good for mental health. It is the behaviour and actions which should be subject of judgement and not mere expression of feelings. One becomes unnatural if one has to hide one's feelings all the time. As a teenager, what disturbed me most the violent expression of jealousy on the part of some of my very close relations particularly at my academic achievements? I had expected that I would be profusely hugged and facilitated by my cousins but I had the shock of my life when I found one of my cousins taking the news of my success in a very matter of fences fact way. He started dilating on the factors which had prevented him from making progress in his studies. At this stage of my life, I look forward to future with little excitement and intern essays, much trepidation.
I apprehend that I have to face many difficult situations relating to my academic performance and marriage. May be I will get some support from my parents but whether the relations or friends will be of much help to me, I don't feel any assurance on that count. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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carls essay Dr. C. George Boeree. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of fences Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in essays, the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and fences many chores, Carl was to alcohol, become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined. He went on to the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major. Fences Essays! Later, he switched to religion to grading essays software, study for the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months.
He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of fences his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organized seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?” I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title! He tells us that most of the participants “thought their way right out of grading essays software religious work.” Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of fences analysis Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in 1931. He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for alcohol abuse in college, the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. At this clinic, he learned about fences essays Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940.
In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and essays software Psychotherapy. Then, in 1945, he was invited to fences essays, set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsisn. Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education. In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in La Jolla, California. He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in 1987. Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on on english, years of experience dealing with his clients. He has this in fences, common with Freud, for example. Also in common with Freud is intern essays, that his is a particularly rich and mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.
Not in analysis essays, common with Freud, however, is the fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. Intern Essays! In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of essays life, and essays he sees mental illness, criminality, and fences analysis essays other human problems, as distortions of that natural tendency. Also not in common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is essays, a relatively simple one. Also not in common with Freud is that Rogers’ theory is particularly simple -- elegant even! The entire theory is built on a single “force of life” he calls the actualizing tendency . It can be defined as the essays built-in motivation present in intern essays, every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible. We’re not just talking about survival: Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the very best of their existence. If they fail to do so, it is not for fences essays, a lack of poe vs comparison contrast essay desire.
Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the other motives that other theorists talk about. He asks us, why do we want air and water and food? Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence? Why, indeed, do we seek to discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of art? Because, he answers, it is in our nature as living things to do the very best we can! Keep in mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the term, Rogers applies it to all living creatures.
Some of his earliest examples, in fact, include seaweed and mushrooms! Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the fences essays frozen north? He also applied the idea to ecosystems, saying that an ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field. If one bug were to become extinct in a forest, there are likely to be other creatures that will adapt to fill the gap; On the other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and you have a dust bowl. The same for us as individuals: If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the revolutionary titles forest, and thereby remain flexible in the face of life’s little -- and big -- disasters. People, however, in the course of actualizing their potentials, created society and culture.
In and of itself, that’s not a problem: We are a social creature, it is our nature. But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Rather than remaining close to other aspects of our natures, culture can become a force in its own right. And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it. Don’t misunderstand: Culture and society are not intrinsically evil!
It’s more along the lines of the birds of paradise found in fences analysis essays, Papua-New Guinea. The colorful and dramatic plumage of the males apparently distract predators from females and the young. Natural selection has led these birds towards more and more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground. Essays On English And Literature! At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the male -- or the species -- much good! In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at fences analysis essays, the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us. Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them. Evolution has provided us with the senses, the tastes, the grading software discriminations we need: When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good. Food that tastes bad is likely to be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. That what good and bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear! This is called organismic valuing . Among the essays many things that we instinctively value is positive regard , Rogers umbrella term for ip address to computer, things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and so on. It is clear that babies need love and attention.
In fact, it may well be that they die without it. Analysis! They certainly fail to intern essays, thrive -- i.e. become all they can be. Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard , that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image. Fences Analysis! We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over our years of growing up. Without this self-regard, we feel small and helpless, and again we fail to become all that we can be!
Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to software, eat and essays drink things that are good for revolutionary war essay, them, and fences consume them in balanced proportions. Babies, too, seem to want and abuse in college essay like what they need. Somewhere along the line, however, we have created an environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the fences one in which we evolved. In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and so on, that our ancestors in Africa never knew. Abuse In College! These things have flavors that appeal to our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well. Over millions of years, we may evolve to analysis essays, find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by revolutionary war essay, then, it’ll be way too late for analysis essays, you and me. Our society also leads us astray with conditions of worth . As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the media, and software others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and analysis most importantly, we get love and affection if and intern essays only if we “behave!” Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard . Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into analysis essays, a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by essays on english and literature, a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at heart. A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl! Over time, this “conditioning” leads us to have conditional positive self-regard as well.
We begin to like ourselves only fences analysis if we meet up with the standards others have applied to us, rather than if we are truly actualizing our potentials. And since these standards were created without keeping each individual in mind, more often than not we find ourselves unable to meet them, and essays software therefore unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem. The aspect of your being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and fences self-regard, Rogers calls the essays software real self . It is the “you” that, if all goes well, you will become. On the other hand, to the extent that our society is out of fences synch with the actualizing tendency, and we are forced to live with conditions of worth that are out of hawthorne comparison essay step with organismic valuing, and receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an fences analysis essays ideal self . By ideal, Rogers is suggesting something not real, something that is always out of how to assign to computer our reach, the standard we can’t meet. This gap between the real self and the ideal self, the fences analysis “I am” and the “I should” is called incongruity . The greater the gap, the more incongruity. The more incongruity, the more suffering.
In fact, incongruity is essentially what Rogers means by neurosis : Being out of synch with your own self. If this all sounds familiar to you, it is intern essays, precisely the same point made by Karen Horney! When you are in a situation where there is an incongruity between your image of yourself and analysis essays your immediate experience of poe vs hawthorne contrast yourself (i.e. between the ideal and fences analysis the real self), you are in a threatening situation . For example, if you have been taught to feel unworthy if you do not get A's on all your tests, and yet you aren't really all that great a student, then situations such as tests are going to bring that incongruity to light -- tests will be very threatening. When you are expecting a threatening situation, you will feel anxiety . Anxiety is a signal indicating that there is trouble ahead, that you should avoid the situation! One way to avoid the situation, of course, is to pick yourself up and run for the hills. Grading Software! Since that is not usually an option in life, instead of running physically, we run psychologically, by using defenses . Rogers' idea of defenses is analysis, very similar to essays software, Freud's, except that Rogers considers everything from a perceptual point-of-view, so that even memories and impulses are thought of as perceptions. Fortunately for us, he has only two defenses: denial and perceptual distortion.
Denial means very much what it does in Freud's system: You block out the threatening situation altogether. An example might be the person who never picks up his test or asks about test results, so he doesn't have to face poor grades (at least for now!). Denial for fences, Rogers does also include what Freud called repression: If keeping a memory or an impulse out of your awareness -- refuse to on english and literature, perceive it -- you may be able to avoid (again, for now!) a threatening situation. Perceptual distortion is a matter of reinterpreting the analysis essays situation so that it appears less threatening. Grading Software! It is very similar to essays, Freud's rationalization. A student that is hawthorne comparison essay, threatened by analysis essays, tests and hawthorne contrast grades may, for example, blame the professor for poor teaching, trick questions, bad attitude, or whatever. The fact that sometimes professors are poor teachers, write trick questions, and have bad attitudes only makes the distortion work better: If it could be true, then maybe it really was true! It can also be much more obviously perceptual, such as when the person misreads his grade as better than it is.
Unfortunately for the poor neurotic (and, in fences, fact, most of us), every time he or she uses a defense, they put a greater distance between the real and on english language the ideal. They become ever more incongruous, and find themselves in more and analysis more threatening situations, develop greater and greater levels of anxiety, and use more and alcohol in college more defenses. It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is unable to get out of, at least on their own. Rogers also has a partial explanation for psychosis : Psychosis occurs when a person's defense are overwhelmed, and their sense of fences analysis essays self becomes shattered into little disconnected pieces. His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. We see him as having psychotic breaks -- episodes of bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense.
His emotions may be inappropriate. He may lose the grading ability to differentiate self and non-self, and become disoriented and passive. The fully-functioning person. Rogers, like Maslow, is fences, just as interested in hawthorne contrast, describing the analysis healthy person. His term is essay, fully-functioning, and analysis essays involves the language following qualities: 1. Essays! Openness to experience . This is the opposite of defensiveness.
It is the accurate perception of one's experiences in war essay titles, the world, including one's feelings. It also means being able to accept reality, again including one's feelings. Feelings are such an important part of openness because they convey organismic valuing. If you cannot be open to your feelings, you cannot be open to acualization. The hard part, of course, is essays, distinguishing real feelings from the anxieties brought on by conditions of worth. 2. Existential living . This is living in poe vs comparison essay, the here-and-now. Rogers, as a part of getting in touch with reality, insists that we not live in the past or the future -- the one is gone, and the other isn't anything at fences essays, all, yet!
The present is the only reality we have. Alcohol! Mind you, that doesn't mean we shouldn't remember and learn from our past. Neither does it mean we shouldn't plan or even day-dream about the future. Just recognize these things for what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in the present. 3. Organismic trusting . We should allow ourselves to fences essays, be guided by on english and literature, the organismic valuing process. We should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural. This, as I'm sure you realize, has become a major sticking point in analysis, Rogers' theory.
People say, sure, do what comes natural -- if you are a sadist, hurt people; if you are a masochist, hurt yourself; if the hawthorne comparison contrast essay drugs or alcohol make you happy, go for analysis essays, it; if you are depressed, kill yourself. This certainly doesn't sound like great advice. Essay! In fact, many of the excesses of the sixties and seventies were blamed on this attitude. Fences Analysis Essays! But keep in mind that Rogers meant trust your real self, and you can only know what your real self has to grading, say if you are open to experience and living existentially! In other words, organismic trusting assumes you are in contact with the fences analysis essays acutalizing tendency.
4. Experiential freedom . Rogers felt that it was irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. We feel very much as if we do. This is software, not to say, of course, that we are free to do anything at all: We are surrounded by a deterministic universe, so that, flap my arms as much as I like, I will not fly like Superman. It means that we feel free when choices are available to us. Rogers says that the fences essays fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and takes responsibility for his choices. 5. Creativity . If you feel free and responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in the world. A fully-functioning person, in touch with acualization, will feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of revolutionary war essay others, even life itself. Fences Essays! This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing one's best at one's job.
Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to Erikson's generativity. Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy. His therapy has gone through a couple of name changes along the way: He originally called it non-directive , because he felt that the grading essays therapist should not lead the client, but rather be there for the client while the fences client directs the progress of the therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as non-directive as he was, he still influenced his client by his very non-directiveness! In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and assign ip address will find it even when the therapist is trying not to guide. So he changed the name to client-centered . He still felt that the client was the one who should say what is wrong, find ways of improving, and fences essays determine the conclusion of intern essays therapy -- his therapy was still very client-centered even while he acknowledged the analysis impact of the therapist. Unfortunately, other therapists felt that this name for his therapy was a bit of intern essays a slap in the face for them: Aren't most therapies client-centered? Nowadays, though the terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy . Fences! One of the software phrases that Rogers used to fences analysis, describe his therapy is supportive, not reconstructive, and he uses the analogy of learning to ride a bicycle to hawthorne comparison essay, explain: When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. Fences! They have to try it for themselves. How To! And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to fences, let them go.
If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the same in therapy. If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life beyond the therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to therapy may seem to work marvelously at first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection . Reflection is the mirroring of emotional communication: If the client says I feel like shit! the therapist may reflect this back to the client by software, saying something like So, life's getting you down, hey? By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is analysis essays, indeed listening and cares enough to understand. The therapist is ip address to computer, also letting the fences essays client know what it is the client is communicating.
Often, people in distress say things that they don't mean because it feels good to say them. For example, a woman once came to me and said I hate men! I reflected by saying You hate all men? Well, she said, maybe not all -- she didn't hate her father or her brother or, for grading essays software, that matter, me. Fences Essays! Even with those men she hated, she discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the word hate implies. In fact, ultimately, she realized that she didn't trust many men, and that she was afraid of being hurt by them the grading essays software way she had been by one particular man. Reflection must be used carefully, however. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling), and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth.
They sound like parrots with psychology degrees! Then they think that the client doesn't notice, when in fact it has become a stereotype of Rogerian therapy the fences analysis essays same way as sex and mom have become stereotypes of Freudian therapy. Reflection must come from the heart -- it must be genuine, congruent. Which brings us to Rogers' famous requirements of the therapist. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to ip address to computer, be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Analysis Essays! Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the hawthorne client feels. 3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client. He says these qualities are necessary and sufficient : If the therapist shows these three qualities, the essays client will improve, even if no other special techniques are used. If the therapist does not show these three qualities, the assign client's improvement will be minimal, no matter how many techniques are used. Fences! Now this is grading software, a lot to ask of a therapist!
They're just human, and often enough a bit more human (let's say unusual) than most. Rogers does give in a little, and he adds that the therapist must show these things in the therapy relationship. In other words, when the therapist leaves the essays office, he can be as human as anybody. I happen to agree with Rogers, even though these qualities are quite demanding. Some of the research does suggest that techniques don't matter nearly as much as the revolutionary war essay therapist's personality, and fences that, to essays, some extent at least, therapists are born not made. Rogers was a great writer, a real pleasure to read. The most complete statement of his theory is in Client-centered Therapy (1951). Two collections of essays are very interesting: On Becoming a Person (1961) and A Way of fences analysis Being (1980).
Finally, there's a nice collection of his work in The Carl Rogers Reader , edited by Kirschenbaum and Henderson (1989).