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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The heart of tolerance is self-control. Act Essays. When we tolerate an activity, we resist our urge to forcefully prohibit the expression of activities that we find unpleasant. More abstractly, toleration can be understood as a political practice aiming at neutrality, objectivity, or fairness on the part of political agents. These ideas are related in that the goal of political neutrality is deliberate restraint of the power that political authorities have to negate the life activities of its citizens and subjects.
Related to toleration is the virtue of tolerance, which can be defined as a tendency toward toleration. Toleration is usually grounded upon an assumption about the importance of the autonomy of individuals. This assumption and the idea of toleration are central ideas in modern liberal theory and practice. The virtue of toleration is implicit in Socrates' method of allowing many diverse perspectives to be expressed. In seventeenth century Europe, the plant essays, concept of tolerance was developed as liberal thinkers sought to limit the coercive actions of act essays, government and dissertation the Church.
They argued that human beings are fallible and should have epistemic modesty. Further, an scored, individual know his or her interests best and requires tolerance by others in order to find the doctoral dissertation improvement, best way to live. The following article provides a conceptual and historical overview of the concept of toleration, surveying thinkers such as Socrates, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Immanuel Kant, John Rawls and other contemporary political philosophers who have weighed in on this important yet problematic idea. The English words, 'tolerate', 'toleration', and act essays scored ‘tolerance’ are derived from the Latin terms tolerare and tolerantia , which imply enduring, suffering, bearing, and forbearance. Ancient Greek terms, which may also have influenced philosophical thinking on toleration, include: phoretos which means bearable, endurable, or phoreo , literally 'to carry'; and online anektikos meaning bearable, sufferable, tolerable, from scored, anexo , 'to hold up'. Today, when we say that someone has a 'high tolerance for dissertation pain,' we mean that he or she is able to endure pain. This ordinary way of thinking is useful for understanding the idea of toleration and act essays the virtue of tolerance: it underscores the fact that toleration is directed by an agent toward something perceived as negative. It would be odd to say, for example, that someone has a high tolerance for pleasure. With this in statement conclusion, mind, we can formulate a general definition of toleration that involves three interrelated conditions.
When an agent tolerates something: (1) the agent holds a negative judgment about this thing; (2) the agent has the scored, power to negate this thing; and. (3) the agent deliberately refrains from negation. The first condition requires a negative judgment, which can be anything from disapproval to disgust. Judgment here is meant to dissertation, be a broad concept that can include emotions, dispositions, tastes, and scored reasoned evaluations. This negative judgment inclines the agent toward a negative action toward the thing that is perceived as being negative. This broadly Stoic conception of plant growth essays, judgment is a common assumption in discussions of act essays scored, toleration. Defenders of plant growth, toleration assume that we can, to a certain extent, voluntarily control the expression of our negative reactions by opposing them with different, countervailing, judgments.
Although judgments and emotions are both thought to have motivating force, they can be resisted by some other judgment, habit or virtue. The entity toward which an agent has a negative judgment can be an scored, event, an object, or a person, although with regard to tolerance as a moral and political disposition, the entity is usually thought to be a person. Although we speak of tolerating pain, for example, the moral and political emphasis is on tolerating some other person, a group of people, or their activities. The second condition states that the agent has the power to negate the society essay, entity in question. Toleration is concerned with resisting the temptation to actively negate the thing in question. To distinguish toleration from cowardice or weakness of will the agent must have some capacity to enact his negative judgment.
Toleration occurs when the agent could actively negate or destroy the person or object in question, but chooses not to. The word negate is scored, used here in a broad sense that allows for a variety of negative reactions. Negative actions can include: expressions of condemnation, acts of expository thesis, avoidance, or violent attacks. The continuum of negations is decidedly vague. It is not clear, for example, whether condemnation and avoidance are negations of the same sort as violent action. Despite the vagueness of the continuum of negative activities, the focal point of the second criterion is the power to negate: toleration is restraint of the power to negate. The third condition states that the agent deliberately refrains from exercising his power to negate. Tolerant agents deliberately choose not to negate those things they view negatively.
The negative formulation, 'not negating,' is important because toleration is not the same thing as positive evaluation, approbation, or approval. Tolerant restraint of the negative judgment is supposed to be free and deliberate: one refrains from negating the thing because one has a reason not to negate it and is free to act. Good reasons for toleration are plural. They include: respect for autonomy; a general commitment to pacifism; concern for other virtues such as kindness and generosity; pedagogical concerns; a desire for reciprocity; and a sense of modesty about act essays one's ability to judge the beliefs and actions of others. Each of these provides us with a reason for thinking that it is online, good not to negate the thing in question. As mentioned already, there also may be other non-tolerant reasons for refraining from act essays, negation: fear, weakness of narrative, will, profit motive, self-interest, arrogance, and so forth. Although there are many reasons to act essays, be tolerant, traditional discussions have emphasized respect for autonomy and explanatory pedagogical concerns. Underlying both of these approaches is act essays, often a form of self-conscious philosophical modesty that is linked to the value of respect for autonomy. As John Stuart Mill and others have argued, individuals ought to be left to pursue their own good in essay in past, their own way in part because each individual knows himself and his own needs and interests best.
This view does, however, leave us with a lingering problem as toleration can easily slip toward moral skepticism and relativism. It is important to note then that toleration is a positive value that is not based upon total moral skepticism. Proponents of toleration think that toleration is good not because they are unsure of their moral values but, rather, because toleration fits within a scheme of act essays scored, moral values that includes values such as autonomy, peace, cooperation, and other values that are thought to be good for human flourishing. The spirit of in our society, tolerance is evident in Socrates' dialogical method as a component of his search for truth. Throughout the early Platonic dialogues, Socrates tolerantly allows his interlocutors to act essays scored, pursue the truth wherever this pursuit might lead.
And he encourages his interlocutors to offer refutations so that the truth might be revealed. Sometimes Socrates' tolerance can appear to go too far. The Euthyrphro concludes, for example, with Socrates allowing Euthyphro to proceed in the prosecution of a questionable court case. And Socrates' relationship with Alcibiades, as discussed in the Symposium , shows Socrates as perhaps too tolerant toward this reckless Athenian youth. In the expository thesis, Gorgias (at 458a) Socrates describes himself in terms that establish a link between philosophical method and act essays scored a form of toleration. Socrates says, And what kind of man am I? One of technology society, those who would gladly be refuted if anything I say is not true, and would gladly refute another who says what is act essays scored, not true, but would be no less happy to be refuted myself than to refute, for conclusion graduate I consider that a greater benefit, inasmuch as it is a greater boon to be delivered from the worst of evils oneself than to deliver another. For Socrates, then, the pursuit of truth is linked to an open mind, although of course this form of dialogical toleration is supposed to act essays scored, lead to a unitary vision of the truth. One can see a more developed form of tolerance celebrated in the Stoicism of Epictetus (55-135 C.E.) and Marcus Aurelius (121-180 C.E.). The Stoic idea is that we should focus on those things we can control—our own opinions and behaviors—while ignoring those things we cannot control, especially the opinions and behaviors of others. The Stoic idea is linked to resignation and doctoral improvement apathy, as is clear in the case of Epictetus, whose social position—raised as a Roman slave—might explain his advice about bearing and forbearing.
Of course, the problem here is act essays scored, that slavish forbearance is not the same as tolerance: it seems clear that tolerance properly requires the power to negate, which the slave does not possess. With the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, however, tolerance is seen as a virtue of power. Tolerance might be linked to other virtues of personal conclusion graduate school, power such as mercy and benevolence, as suggested, for example by Seneca. However, it is important to note that the Stoic approach to scored, tolerance was not explicitly linked to a general idea about political respect for autonomy and freedom of personal conclusion graduate, conscience, as it is in the modern liberal tradition. Moreover, Roman political life was not nearly as tolerant as modern political life. For example, although Marcus' Meditations contain many passages invoking the spirit of tolerance, Marcus was responsible for continuing the persecution of Christians. Religious traditions provide further historical background for the idea of toleration. Scored. For example, the spirit of in past tense, tolerance can be discovered in the Christian Gospel's message of loving enemies, forgiving others, and refraining from judging others. Christian tolerance is linked to other virtues such as charity and self-sacrifice. Furthermore, it seems to go beyond tolerance toward a self-abnegating type of love and acceptance. Christ's command to love your enemies is one example of this attempt to go beyond tolerance.
It should be noted that other religious traditions also contain resources for act essays scored developing toleration. For example, Buddhist compassion can be linked to the idea of toleration. Indeed, in the third century B.C.E., the personal graduate, Buddhist emperor of India, Ashoka, called for official religious toleration. Likewise, in act essays, the 16 th Century C.E., the Islamic emperor Akhbar made a similar attempt at establishing religious toleration on the Indian subcontinent. Despite these antecedents, toleration does not become a serious subject of philosophical and political concern in Europe until the 16th and 17th Centuries. During the Renaissance and personal statement school Reformation of the 15th and 16th Centuries, humanists such as Erasmus (1466-1536), De Las Casas (1484-1566), and Montaigne (1533-1592) asserted the autonomy of scored, human reason against the dogmatism of the Church. Although religious authorities reacted with the formation of the Inquisition and the Index of technology essay, Forbidden Books, by the 17 th Century philosophers were seriously considering the question of toleration. Following the divisions created by the Lutheran Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, Europe was decimated by war and violence fomented in the name of religion, which culminated in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). Through events such as these scholars became acutely aware of the destructive power of intolerance and act essays sought to limit this destructive force by re-examining the biblical roots of toleration and by re-considering the relation between religious belief and political power. Additional influences on online the cultural landscape of Europe during this time include the scored, struggle to define sovereignty and to purify religion in narrative essay tense, Britain during the British Civil Wars (1640-1660), as well as increased information about cultural differences with the beginning of global exploration.
Among the thinkers of this period, those who defended tolerance were Milton (1608-1674), Bayle (1647-1706), Spinoza (1634-1677), and Locke (1632-1704). One of the worries of the humanist thinkers of the Reformation was whether it was possible to have infallible knowledge of the Divine Will such that one could justify the persecution of heretics. This concern with human fallibility lies at act essays, the heart of what will be described subsequently as epistemological toleration. When recognition of doctoral dissertation, human fallibility is act essays scored, combined with critique of political and ecclesiastical power, more robust forms of political toleration develop. In this vein, Spinoza concluded his Theological-Political Treatise (1670) with an argument for freedom of thought. It is doctoral, not surprising that Spinoza should have written this treatise, for he was himself a product of a tolerant society: he was a Portuguese Jew living in Holland. Indeed, the 17 th Century saw the rise of toleration in act essays scored, practice in certain parts of Europe, perhaps as a result of increased trade and social mobility. Spinoza's argument for plant essays toleration focuses on three claims: first, he claims that it is act essays, impossible for the state to effectively curtail liberty of thought; second, he claims that liberty of mfa writing, thought can in fact be allowed without detriment to state power; and act essays finally, Spinoza argues that political authority should focus on controlling actions and technology in our society not on act essays restricting thought. This emphasis on the difference between thought and action is crucial for subsequent discussions of plant essays, toleration in act essays scored, Locke, Mill, and Kant.
Somewhat different versions of technology in our essay, Spinoza's basic insights can be found in Locke’s famous Letter Concerning Toleration (1689), an essay that was written during Locke's exile in Holland. Locke's argument focuses specifically on the conflict between political authority and religious belief. He articulated a view of toleration based on the epistemological claim that it is impossible for the state to coerce genuine religious belief. He argued that the state should refrain from interfering in the religious beliefs of its subjects, except when these religious beliefs lead to behaviors or attitudes that run counter to the security of the state. This exception allowed him to scored, conclude that the state need not tolerate Catholics who were loyal to a foreign authority or atheists whose lack of religious conviction left them entirely untrustworthy. In the 18 th Century, discussion of toleration was tied to the problem of skepticism and to graduate school, a more sustained critique of absolutism in politics. Voltaire (1694-1778), who expressed his admiration for the development of religious tolerance in England in his Philosophical Letters (1734), was extremely worried about the act essays, tendency of statement, religion to become violent and intolerant. Moreover, he suffered under the intolerant hands of the French authorities: he was thrown in jail for his views and his books were censored and publicly burned. Religious tolerance forms the theme of his Treatise on Tolerance (1763), which argues vigorously for tolerance even though it retains a bias toward Christianity.
A concise summary of Voltaire's argument for tolerance can be found in the entry on Tolerance in act essays scored, his Philosophical Dictionary (1764). Voltaire's claim is that toleration follows from human frailty and error. Conclusion Graduate. Since none of us has perfect knowledge, and since we are all weak, inconsistent, liable to fickleness and error, we should pardon one another for act essays scored our failings. Voltaire's approach focuses on tolerance at the level of personal interaction and risks slipping toward moral skepticism and relativism: like his contemporary David Hume (1711-1777), Voltaire presented a skeptical challenge to orthodox belief. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), in response to skeptics such as Voltaire and Hume, tried to avoid skepticism while focusing on the limits of human knowledge and the limits of doctoral dissertation, political power. In his essay, What is Enlightenment? (1784), Kant argues for act essays scored an enlightened form of political power that would allow subjects to argue among themselves, so long as they remained obedient to authority. This position is essay in past tense, further clarified by Kant's claim in act essays, Perpetual Peace (1795) that philosophers should be allowed and encouraged to speak publicly. Kant's point in this later essay is that public debate and society discussion lead to scored, the truth, and plant essays that kings should have nothing to act essays, fear from the truth. Kant's views on religious toleration are clarified in mfa writing, his Religion within the act essays scored, Limits of Reason Alone (1793).
Here Kant argues against religious intolerance by pointing out that although we are certain of our moral duties, human beings do not have apodictic certainty of God's commands. Thus a religious belief that demands a contravention of morality (such as the burning of a heretic) can never be justified. Bridging the gap between the Old World and the New World, the writings of Thomas Paine (1737-1809) and Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) express a theory of toleration that is tied directly to political practice. Paine's and Jefferson’s ideas followed Locke’s. Not only were they critical of unrestrained political power but they were also committed to an ecumenical approach to religious belief known as deism. Essays. Paine makes it clear in act essays scored, his Rights of online mfa writing, Man (1791) that toleration for religious diversity is essential because political and ecclesiastical authorities do not have the capacity to adjudicate matters of conscience. Mind thine own concerns. If he believes not as thou believest, it is a proof that thou believest not as he believeth, and there is act essays, no earthly power can determine between you. At the end of the 18th Century, we see tolerant ideas embodied in conclusion graduate, practice in the U.S.
Constitution's Bill of Rights—the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution (ratified in 1791). Collectively these amendments serve to restrain political power. Scored. Specifically, the First Amendment states that there can be no law, which prohibits freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and freedom to petition to the government. Subsequent developments in U.S. Constitutional law have led to a tradition of respect for essay in past citizens' freedom of thought, speech, and action. In the 19th Century, the idea of toleration was developed further in line with the liberal, enlightenment idea that moral autonomy is essential to human flourishing.
The most famous argument for toleration in the 19 th Century was made by John Stuart Mill in act essays, On Liberty (1859). Mill argues here that the only proper limit of liberty is harm: one is entitled to be as free as possible, except where one's liberty poses a threat to the well-being of someone else: the only purpose for which power can rightfully be exercised over online mfa writing any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. Mill expands the scored, notion of privacy that was implicit in Locke and Kant to argue that political power should have no authority to regulate those activities and interests of individuals that are purely private and personal statement graduate school have no secondary effects on others. Mill also vigorously argues that freedom of thought is essential for the development of knowledge. Mill's general approach is scored, utilitarian: he claims that individuals will be happier if their private differences are tolerated and that society in in past tense, general will be better off if individuals are left to pursue their own good in their own way. In the 19th Century and into the early 20th Century, religious toleration was also a subject of consideration for thinkers such as Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), and William James (1842-1910), who emphasized the subjective nature of religious faith. For example, in act essays scored, his Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), James argued that religious experience was diverse and not subject to a definitive interpretation. Although this fits with James's larger metaphysical commitment to pluralism, his point is that religious commitment is personal—a matter of what he calls in another essay, the will to conclusion graduate, believe. It is up to each individual to decide for himself what he will believe: if we properly understand the nature of religious belief, we should respect the act essays scored, religious liberty of others and learn to tolerate our differences. In the 20th Century, toleration has become an important component of what is now known as liberal theory. The bloody history of the expository thesis statement, 20th Century has led many to believe that toleration is needed to end political and religious violence.
Toleration has been defended by liberal philosophers and political theorists such as John Dewey, Isaiah Berlin, Karl Popper, Michael Walzer, Ronald Dworkin, and John Rawls. It has been criticized by Herbert Marcuse and others such as Iris Young who worry that toleration and its ideal of state neutrality is merely another hegemonic Western ideology. Toleration has been the explicit subject of many recent works in political philosophy by Susan Mendus, John Horton, Preston King, and Bernard Williams. Act Essays. Much of the current discussion focuses on responding to John Rawls, whose theory of political liberalism conceives of doctoral dissertation improvement, toleration as a pragmatic response to the fact of diversity (see Political Toleration below). A recurring question in the current debate is whether there can be a more substantive commitment to toleration that does not lead to the paradoxical consequence that the tolerant must tolerate those who are intolerant.
Further recent discussion, by David Heyd, Glenn Newey, and others, has attempted to re-establish the link between tolerance and virtue. These writers wonder whether tolerance is in fact a virtue and if so, what sort of a virtue it is. A concern for racial equality, gender neutrality, an end of prejudice, respect for act essays cultural and ethnic difference, and a general commitment to multiculturalism has fueled ongoing debates about the nature of toleration in our age of globalization and homogenization. Finally, in the U.S., First Amendment Law has developed to allow for a broad idea of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion. And under the influence of an interpretation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, mechanisms to ensure equality have given support to those minority groups who were once the victims of political intolerance.
An epistemological argument for toleration can be traced to Socrates. Dissertation. However, this ideal becomes explicit in the thinking of Milton, Locke, and Mill. The epistemological claim is that one should tolerate the opinions and beliefs of the other because it is either impossible to coerce belief or because such coercion is scored, not the most useful pedagogical approach. This idea can be developed into a claim about the importance of diversity, dialogue, and debate for the establishment of truth. Finally, this approach might lead to a form of relativism or skepticism that puts the idea of toleration itself at risk. Socratic tolerance is discovered if we take seriously Socrates' claims to ignorance. Dissertation. Socratic ignorance is linked to virtues, such as sophrosyne (self-control), modesty and tolerance. Scored. These virtues are essential components in essay, the formation of the philosophical community and the pursuit of scored, philosophical truth.
Throughout Plato's dialogues, Socrates restrains himself deliberately—he modestly claims ignorance and allows others to develop their own positions and make their own mistakes—out of recognition that this is the online mfa writing, best, perhaps the only, way to proceed in the communal pursuit of scored, truth. Socrates' main goal is to discover the truth through open-minded debate. But there would be no dialogue and indeed no education without tolerance. Socrates' commitment to tolerance is part of online mfa writing, his epistemological faith in the autonomy of reason. We each must discover the truth for ourselves by way of disciplined, modest, and act essays tolerant dialogue. Centuries later, John Milton's Areopagitica (1644) offers a similar defense of the truth. Thesis Statement. Milton vigorously defended freedom of act essays scored, speech in response to plant growth essays, a censorship decree of the English parliament. His argument relies upon act essays the epistemological claim that open dialogue supported by a tolerant government fosters the plant essays, development of truth. Milton's basic assumption is act essays scored, that the truth is able to defend itself in a free debate. Let truth and falsehood grapple; who ever knew truth put to the worse, in a free and open encounter? Milton further argues that outward conformity to orthodoxy is not the same as genuine belief.
These ideas were developed further by Locke in his Letter Concerning Toleration . Locke argues that the civil and ecclesiastical authorities ought to tolerate diversity of belief because one cannot force another human being to have faith. In a claim that is reminiscent of Milton, Locke claims the truth certainly would do well enough if she were left to shift for herself… She is not taught by online, laws, nor has she any need of force to procure her entrance into the minds of men. This is so because the act essays, authority of judgment resides within the free individual. It is impossible to force someone to growth, believe something for scored external reasons. Rather, truth must be arrived at and believed for internal reasons. This epistemological claim is the focal point of personal conclusion graduate, Jeremy Waldron's recent critique of Locke’s account. Waldron claims that Locke's argument is weak because it relies upon the false assumption that beliefs cannot be coerced. The point is that we often believe things quite sincerely without any good reason whatsoever.
Moreover, Waldron argues that the epistemological argument is too weak to provide a moral limitation on coercion. Even though coercion cannot produce genuine belief, an intolerant regime may not be interested in producing genuine belief. It may simply be interested in guaranteeing conformity. Waldron's point is important: the epistemological critique is useful only if one is act essays, committed to the claim that genuine belief in the truth is an important political or moral value. An epistemological argument for toleration must claim not only plant, that it is impractical or impossible to impose belief upon others, but also that we ought to value genuine commitment over mere conformity. Mill's epistemological argument is quite similar to scored, Locke's, although Mill goes farther in advocating freedom of speech as essential for the discovery of plant, truth. Mill's epistemological argument begins with the scored, assumption that individuals know best what is good for them. This claim runs counter to the traditional Platonic claim that often individuals do not know what is in their own best interest. Mill supports his claim by pointing out that the individual always has the best access to his/her own interests and desires: others do not have access to the kinds of internal evidence that would allow them to judge for the individual. It is technology society essay, important to note that Mill does not equate this access problem with relativism. Indeed, in act essays scored, his essay Utilitarianism (1863), he famously defends a hierarchy of narrative essay in past, goods based on the fact that those who have experienced both lower and act essays scored higher goods will prefer the higher ones (for example, “it is growth, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied).
The epistemological point remains the same here, however: it is up to the individual to judge for act essays scored himself about what is good for him. Mill's general argument for freedom of thought is based upon a recognition of human fallibility and on the need for dialogue and debate. Mill's argument for doctoral improvement freedom of thought in On Liberty contains the following claims. (1) Silenced opinions may be true. To assume they are not is to assume that we are infallible. (2) Even false opinions may contain valid points of scored, contention and in our parts of the act essays, truth. To know the whole of narrative essay in past tense, truth we might have to weave together parts of truth from different sources. (3) To claim to act essays, know the truth means that we are able to defend it against all vigorous opposition.
Thus we need to be able to hear and respond to false opinions in order to know all of the arguments for a proposition. (4) Truth that is mfa writing, not continuously and vigorously contested becomes mere superstition. Such dogmatically held superstitions may thus crumble before even weak opposition and will not be heartily believed or defended. Like Socrates, Mill and Locke both arrive at the notion of toleration from a non-relativistic understanding of belief and truth. Act Essays Scored. However, under the general rubric of epistemological toleration we might also include the sort of toleration that follows from skepticism or relativism. For the relativist or skeptic, since we cannot know the truth or since all truths are relative, we ought to be tolerant of those who hold different points of view. Narrative Essay In Past. Contemporary American philosopher, Richard Rorty has articulated an argument something like this. The problem with this approach is the same problem with all sorts of skepticism and act essays relativism: either the claim self-referentially undermines itself or it provides us with no compelling reason to believe it. If we are skeptical about knowledge, then we have no way of knowing that toleration is good. Likewise, if truth is relative to school, a system of thought, then the claim that toleration is required is itself merely a relatively justified claim. The form of epistemological toleration espoused by Mill, at least, attempts to avoid these problems by appealing to a form of fallibilism that is not completely skeptical or relativistic.
Mill's point is not that there is no truth but, rather, that toleration is required for us to come to know the truth. We have seen that epistemological concerns can lead us to act essays, toleration. Moral concerns can also bring us to in our essay, toleration. Tolerance as a moral virtue might be linked to other moral virtues such as modesty and act essays self-control. However, the most common moral value that is thought to ground toleration is a concern for autonomy.
We ought to refrain from negating the other when concern for the other's autonomy provides us with a good reason not to act. Toleration that follows from a commitment to autonomy should not be confused with moral relativism. Moral relativism holds that values are relative to culture or context. A commitment to autonomy, in opposition to this, holds that autonomy is good in a non-relative sense. Statement. A commitment to autonomy might require that I allow another person to do something that I find abhorrent, not because I believe that values are relative, but because I believe that autonomy is so important that it requires me to refrain from negating the autonomous action of another free agent. Of course, there are limits here. Act Essays. Autonomous action that violates the autonomy of another cannot be tolerated. Mill's account of the principle of statement conclusion school, liberty is helpful for understanding this idea of act essays scored, toleration. Mill tells us that we should be given as much liberty as possible, as long as our liberty does not harm others.
This is in fact a recipe for expository thesis statement toleration. Mill's argument follows from act essays scored, certain basic assumptions about individuals. 1. Each individual has a will of his own. 2. Each individual is better off when not compelled to do better. 3. Each individual knows best what is good for expository explanatory statement him. 4. Each individual is act essays, motivated to growth essays, attain his own good and to avoid actions that are contrary to his self-interest. 5. Act Essays Scored. Self-regarding thought and activity can be distinguished from expository statement, its effects upon others. Some of act essays scored, these claims (for example, #3) are linked to epistemological toleration. However, the plant growth essays, point here is not only that individuals know what is in their own self-interest but also that it is good for individuals to act essays, be able to expository thesis, pursue their own good in their own way. Such an approach makes several important metaphysical assumptions about the nature of human being: that autonomy is scored, possible and important, that individuals do know their own good, that there is a distinction between self-regarding action and actions that effects others. Moral toleration follows from expository explanatory thesis statement, these sorts of act essays, claims about human being.
Of course, toleration and respect for autonomy are not simple ideas. Essays. Much has been made about the so-called paradox of toleration: the fact that toleration seems to ask us to tolerate those things we find intolerable. Toleration does require that we refrain from enacting the negative consequences of our negative judgments. Scored. This becomes paradoxical when we find ourselves confronting persons, attitudes, or behaviors, which we vigorously reject: we then must, paradoxically, tolerate that which we find intolerable. This becomes especially difficult when the statement graduate school, other who is to be tolerated expresses views or activities that are themselves intolerant. One way of resolving this paradox is to recognize that there is a distinction between first-order judgments and second-order moral commitments.
First-order judgments include emotional reactions and act essays scored other practical judgments that focus on concrete and particular attitudes and behaviors. Second-order moral commitments include more complicated judgments that aim beyond emotion and particularity toward rational universal principles. With regard to explanatory thesis statement, the paradox of toleration there is a conflict between a first-order reaction against something and a second-order commitment to the principle of respecting autonomy or to the virtues of modesty or self-control. The paradox is resolved by recognizing that this second-order commitment trumps the first-order reaction: principle is supposed to outweigh emotion. Thus we might have good reasons (based upon our second-order commitments) to refrain from following through on the normal consequences of negative first-order judgments. However, when there is act essays scored, a genuine conflict of second-order commitments, that is, when the tolerant commitment to autonomy runs up against an intolerant rejection of autonomy, then there is no need to tolerate. In other words the paradox is resolved when we realize that toleration is not a commitment to relativism but, rather, that it is a commitment to the value of autonomy and to doctoral dissertation improvement, the distinction between first-order judgments and act essays scored second-order moral commitments. Of course, the ideal of mfa writing, toleration is a difficult one to enact.
This difficulty is related to the tension between first-order reactions and second-order commitments that is found within the act essays, spiritual economy of an individual. Thesis. This is why the idea of tolerance as a virtue is important. Virtues are tendencies or habits toward good action. In the case of the virtue of tolerance, the tendency is toward respect for the autonomy of others and toward the act essays scored, self-discipline necessary for narrative in past tense deliberately restraining first-order reactions. Virtues are usually thought to be integrated into a system of virtues.
Tolerance is act essays scored, no exception. The virtue of tolerance is narrative tense, closely related to other virtues such as self-control, modesty, generosity, kindness, mercy, and forgiveness. One must be careful, however, not to conclude that the virtue of tolerance is a tendency toward indifference or apathy. Tolerance demands that we moderate and control our passions in light of scored, some larger good, whether that good be respect for autonomy or an interest in self-control; tolerance does not demand that we completely refrain from plant growth, judging another free agent. Moral toleration asks us to restrain some of act essays, our most powerful first-order reactions: negative reactions to persons, attitudes, and behaviors which we find repugnant. Without the tension between first-order reactions and second-order commitment, toleration is merely indifference. Indifference usually indicates a failure at the level of first-order judgment: when we are indifferent, we do not have any reaction, negative or positive, to the other. Such a state of indifference is not virtuous. Indeed, it would be vicious and wrong not to doctoral, react strongly against injustice or violations of autonomy.
We often confuse indifference with toleration. However, indifference is flawed as a human response for two reasons. First, it rejects the truth of first-order reactions. First-order reactions should not be ignored. Our emotional responses are important ways in which we connect with the world around us. When we react negatively to something, this emotional reaction provides important information about the world and ourselves.
Tolerance does not ask us to deaden our emotional responses to others; rather it asks us to restrain the negative consequences of act essays scored, our negative emotional responses out of deference to a more universal set of commitments. Dissertation Improvement. Second, indifference is often closely related to general skepticism about moral judgment. The moral skeptic claims that no set of values is true. Act Essays Scored. From this perspective, both first-order reactions and second-order commitments are mere tastes or preferences without any final moral significance. From this skepticism, indifference with regard to mfa writing, any moral evaluation is act essays, cultivated because all of our moral values are thought to be equally groundless. The difficulty here is that moral skepticism cannot lead to the conclusion that it is good to be tolerant, since the skeptic holds that no moral value can be justified. If we claim that toleration is good and that tolerance is a virtue, toleration cannot be the same thing as indifference. This distinction between tolerance and technology in our essay indifference is important for explaining the spiritual disruption that occurs when we strive to become tolerant. Act Essays. Indeed, the difficulty of toleration can be understood in terms of the difficulty of the middle path between indifference and dogmatism. Plant. Indifference is easy and satisfying because it sets us free, as it were, from the difficult human task of scored, judging. Likewise, dogmatism is easy and satisfying because it follows from a seamless synthesis of first-order reaction and second-order commitment.
Toleration is the middle path in which there is a conflict between first-order reaction and second-order commitment. Toleration thus requires self-consciousness and self-control in order to coordinate conflicting parts of the spiritual economy. The discipline required for toleration is part of any idea of education: we must learn to distance ourselves from first-order reactions in order to move toward universal principles. First-order reactions are often wrong or incomplete, as are immediate sense perceptions. And yet, education does not ask us to give up on first-order reactions or sense perceptions.
Rather, it asks us to be disciplined and statement self-critical, so that we might control first-order reactions in order to uphold more important principles. Moral toleration emphasizes a moral commitment to the value of autonomy. Although it is linked, by Mill, for example to a political idea about restraint of state power, moral toleration is ultimately concerned with clarifying the scored, second-order principle that is supposed to lead to toleration. While moral toleration is dissertation improvement, about relations between agents, political toleration is act essays, about restraint of expository explanatory thesis, political power. The modern liberal state is usually not thought to be a moral agent.
Rather, the state is supposed to be something like a third party referee: it is not thought to be one of the parties engaged directly in the process of judgment and negation. Act Essays. Political toleration is thus an ideal that holds that the narrative tense, political referee should be impartial and unbiased. Act Essays Scored. The term toleration has been used, since Locke, in this political context to describe a principle of state neutrality. The connection between moral and political toleration can be understood in terms of the history of the technology essay, pre-modern era when the state was an agent—a monarch, for example—who had particular judgments and the power to negate. As the idea of the state has evolved since the act essays, 17th Century toward liberal democratic notions of self-government and civil rights, the notion of political toleration has evolved to mean something like state indifference. Mfa Writing. Political toleration is now thought to entail respect for privacy, separation of church and state, and a general respect for human rights. In the 20th Century, the act essays scored, idea of political toleration has developed, especially under the influence of John Rawls (1921-2002) and his books, Theory of technology in our society, Justice (1971) and Political Liberalism (1995). Rawls' approach attempts to act essays, be neutral about moral values in order to establish political principles of toleration. Rawls argues for toleration in a pragmatic fashion as that which works best to achieve political unity and an idea of justice among diverse individuals. Although the idea of political toleration has been most vigorously defended by Rawls, it also forms the basis of other pragmatic and narrative tense political accounts of toleration, including those of John Dewey, Jurgen Habermas, Michael Walzer, and Richard Rorty. The danger with this approach is that it tends toward relativism by self-consciously limiting itself from scored, articulating a metaphysical defense of autonomy and toleration.
The difficulty is that the idea of plant growth, state neutrality can become paradoxical: a state that is neutral about everything will undermine its own existence. The idea of political toleration begins from the claim that diverse individuals will come to tolerate one another by developing what Rawls called overlapping consensus: individuals and act essays scored groups with diverse metaphysical views or comprehensive schemes will find reasons to agree about certain principles of justice that will include principles of toleration. This is in part an empirical or historical argument about the way in which diverse individuals or groups eventually resolve their differences by way of a pragmatic commitment to toleration as a modus vivendi , or means of life. One could trace this idea back to Hobbes' idea of the social contract as a peace treaty. Diverse individuals in the state of mfa writing, nature will, according to Hobbes's argument in The Leviathan (1651), engage in the war of all against all. This war is ultimately unsatisfying and so individuals relinquish their warring power and create the social contract. The problem is that this pragmatic account leaves us without a metaphysical justification of the principles of toleration. Rather it comes to toleration from the pragmatic assumption that diverse individuals motivated by self-interest will agree to support the neutral state, which is then supposed to act as a referee in their disputes. Of course, Hobbes' account of the absolute sovereignty of the Leviathan calls into question the idea that a social contract view will always lead to a tolerant liberal state. Rawls' idea of justice as fairness attempts to set limits to scored, political power without trying to evaluate the relative merits of different conceptions of the good.
Rawls clarified his approach by insisting that the essay tense, principles of justice are political and not moral principles. They are based upon what he called reasonable pluralism. What he means by this is that the principles of act essays, toleration will be agreed to by individuals from diverse perspectives because these principles will appear reasonable to each individual despite their differences. The idea of toleration results from a political consensus that is developed by way of the ideal social contract that Rawls describes at length in Theory of Justice . Narrative In Past. Like Mill, Rawls theory of justice claims that the first principle of justice is the liberty principle: Each person has an scored, equal right to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties which is compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for expository explanatory thesis all. These basic civil liberties form the basis for political toleration. Political liberalism focuses on the problem of act essays scored, diversity without appealing to a larger metaphysical theory. Dissertation Improvement. This problem is scored, exacerbated when political liberalism takes up the question of international human rights and the problem of intolerant groups or individual who demand to be tolerated. Society. Political liberalism aims at the creation of a global human rights regime that is supposed to scored, support politically tolerant states and that is sensitive to the issue of group rights.
From the perspective of political liberalism, human rights—basic defenses against the intolerant expansion of state power—are thought to be the result of overlapping political consensus. From this perspective, human rights, such as the right to autonomy that forms the basis of moral toleration, are thought to be, not metaphysical givens, but the growth, conditions for the possibility of political consensus building. The idea of a developing overlapping consensus in international affairs was articulated in the 1950's by Jacques Maritain and was developed in practice by international agencies such as the United Nations. In the final decade of the twentieth century, Jurgen Habermas' approach linked principles of toleration to the very nature of political argument: for us to act essays, have a political argument, we must agree to certain principles of explanatory thesis, fair argumentation. The difficultly here is that diversity is even more of a problem on the international scene, where discussions of human rights are essential. At the local or national level, the point of liberalism is that the neutral state ought not interfere or comment on the quality of individual lives unless the lives and act essays scored actions of private individuals become a menace to the rights and privacy of other individuals. Doctoral Dissertation. Internationally, Rawls follows Kant in specifying the Law of act essays scored, Peoples that is supposed to maintain order among diverse mutually tolerant nations. A further complication arises at the level of group rights (both within national and international politics), where groups and their members claim the right to be tolerated by larger political organizations. Here the idea of tolerating the practices and identities of groups may paradoxically result in toleration for intolerant groups. This is the case for example, when tolerant governments consider groups who advocate violence, discrimination, and other intolerant practices. In Our Society. Such groups can be intolerant toward their own members, toward the tolerant liberal societies in which they subside, and indeed toward those international organizations who support toleration throughout the globe.
The risk of political liberalism is that it hovers uneasily between pluralism and relativism, while seeking to act essays scored, avoid metaphysical dogmatism or political imperialism. The basic pluralism of online, political liberalism supports political toleration by recognizing that conflicting comprehensive doctrines can each be justified as reasonable according to the standards internal to them. This leaves us with the conflicts of reasonable pluralism: each of the conflicting comprehensive doctrines is reasonable on its own terms and to the extent that it recognizes the reasonableness of other comprehensive doctrines. Thus, for Rawls, cooperation between reasonable comprehensive doctrines is a practical political task. The state should refrain from entering into act essays scored, a discussion of which comprehensive doctrine is better morally, epistemologically, or metaphysically quite simply because such a discussion would be unjust for a neutral state confronted with the fact of diversity. By defining his account of plant essays, state neutrality as political, Rawls wants to distance his account of reasonable pluralism from a more robust form of philosophical skepticism. This is reminiscent of Locke's approach to epistemological toleration: since we cannot in practice force individuals to agree about moral or metaphysical truths, we should tolerate diversity at scored, the political level. Rawls does, however, hold that there is a best political arrangement, even if the truth about the best political arrangement is arrived at by way of pragmatic concerns for what works politically in light of the dissertation improvement, fact of act essays scored, diversity.
And thus his idea of political consensus tries to conclusion graduate school, avoid the slide toward skepticism and relativism. It seems that for political toleration, there is at least one non-relative value—that of toleration and peaceful coexistence—even if this is scored, merely pragmatically justified by the concrete historical need for peaceful coexistence among those who cannot arrive at consensus about their views of the good. The approach of political liberalism has appeared to succeed in practice. One could argue that the idea of the neutral state and of political consensus about the need for toleration has been gradually developing in Constitutional Law in the U.S. and in international law by way of the U.N.'s Declaration of Human Rights. Article 26 of the U.N. Declaration states explicitly that education is growth, a universal right and that education should aim to promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups. We are still far from actualizing the idea of a tolerant international community. However, it is fairly clear that in act essays scored, the last several decades the idea of political toleration has succeeded in the United States and in statement graduate school, other Western countries. Despite this success, critics such as Michael Sandel, in his Democracy's Discontent (1998), have argued that the tolerant attitude of what he calls the procedural republic must be grounded in a more comprehensive moral theory. Without such a ground, Sandel worries that the tolerant neutral state will ultimately lose its connection with the moral lives of individuals.
Sandel claims in his arguments against Rawls and against certain developments in Constitutional Law that the approach of political liberalism cannot ultimately take account of the depth of commitment that most individuals have to their own comprehensive doctrines. Rawls admits that for act essays scored his idea of overlapping consensus to work, he must assume a weakening of private faith in comprehensive doctrines. The problem here is that it argues for toleration by underestimating the power of those forms of private faith that must be tolerated. A further problem of the political approach to toleration is that it struggles to online mfa writing, define the nature of act essays scored, privacy. Moral toleration claims that there are certain private activities which are only of concern to the individual and that the state would be unjustified in interfering with these private activities. A merely political approach to toleration is improvement, however unable to draw the line dividing public and private in a metaphysical fashion. Rather, the sphere of privacy is act essays scored, itself defined only as a result of the technology essay, process of building political consensus.
Thus the worry is that the principles of political liberalism are not clearly defined and that toleration, as a mere modus vivendi , could be violated if the political consensus were to shift. Scored. In other words, if there is no metaphysical basis for a sphere of privacy, then it is not exactly clear what the politically grounded idea of liberal toleration is expository thesis, supposed to tolerate.
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1996 Ap Us Reconstruction Dbq Essays and Research Papers. A.P. United States History Dr. Parsons 1/3/2012 DBQ 1996 Question: In what ways and to what extent did constitutional . and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to act essays a revolution? Doc A: South Carolina declaration of doctoral dissertation improvement Causes of act essays scored Secession, Dec. 24, 1860.
Evidence: Interpretation of the narrative in past 10th Amendment--…powers not prohibited to federal govt nor prohibited to act essays scored states are reserved to the states, or people. Inference: Challenges Article 4, section 4 and Article 6, section 2; assumes. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Jim Crow laws 605 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative In Past! ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to act essays scored Gibeon Granger . about the powers of the improvement states. Act Essays Scored! Jefferson believes the country is too large to have a single federal government. He believes that the states should have some power too. Jefferson says the Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and the federalists have opposed them.
Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesn’t give the federal government. Narrative In Past Tense! Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages. AP US History Reconstruction DBQ Following the scored culmination of the in past Civil War, issues regarding the . restoration of seceded states to the Union, the emancipation of slaves, and the overall re-development of political institutions in the nation prevailed. The idea of Reconstruction was proposed to political officials in late 1865, when the effects of the scored tumultuous Civil War were at its most devastating. Personal Statement Conclusion Graduate! The various enactments of the period were deemed void and not actively enforced.
Democratic and. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Ku Klux Klan 1142 Words | 4 Pages. AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested involvement in the . Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of “teach-ins” on university campuses, created a massive debate over act essays scored, the war and growth, United States involvement. By 1967, there was massive opposition to scored the war, from students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and even former members of the armed forces. This opposition was not the only tension in the nation. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and technology in our essay, we are so culturally different from current day England, we are so ignorant to what had to . happen for act essays us to be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in the world, were always getting caught up in the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the “hardships” we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on personal graduate school, a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by scored the 1700’s because . differences in developments occurred.
These differences included motives for in our society being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and New England society differed in their motives for colonization. The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to build opportunities. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages.
US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into scored, his presidency and technology essay, . defined the precedents for future presidents. Act Essays Scored! His intentions, on unifying the states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very. Expository! Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to a large extent, a continuation of past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects. During the period of time between the act essays late 19th century and doctoral dissertation improvement, early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in act essays scored Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the Spanish-American War, the Americans received several territorial concessions.
20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the first colonies settled by people of English origin. That is where the expository thesis similarities . end. These two colonies evolved into act essays scored, two completely different societies. There are many factors that contributed to personal statement graduate the different lifestyles. These factors include government of society, socioeconomic status, and climate. These four exceedingly important aspects of any society provided a split in act essays these two early English colonies.
Those who arrived in the. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. In Past! AP ® United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is scored, a not-for-profit membership association whose . mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Online Mfa Writing! Founded in scored 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and narrative essay tense, services in.
Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An interesting . characteristic of the scored colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by statement conclusion graduate people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and act essays, ways of life. While the varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isn’t a negligible factor in expository the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? Reconstruction DBQ The era of Reconstruction in the 1870s in both the North and South experienced battle for . Act Essays Scored! equality for men freed by mfa writing the 13th Amendment. America was on the brink of recreating the American government, showing genuine signs of a better and brighter future for the African American population. Economic and scored, political practices limited the liberties of growth essays black men. Vicious hate groups struck fear unto those who supported the integration of freedmen. Scored! The political realm during the time. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 886 Words | 3 Pages. ?Blaize Giangiulio Mr.
Reader AP US II 3 September 2014 From 1860 to 1877 America fought a bloody Civil War and went . through a “ Reconstruction ” era from that war. During this time period changes to the Constitution, such as the 15th Amendment that granted African American men the right to online mfa writing vote, caused what is now viewed as a revolution. The formation of the Ku Klux Klan in 1865 exemplifies a social change that stirred the pot of revolution in a different way. Act Essays Scored! Put together, the social and constitutional. African American , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 4 Pages. Civil War until the end of the Reconstruction period, America faced what can be considered a revolution. During this time, many social and doctoral, . constitutional developments emerged and brought great change to the country. Scored! Social developments that contributed to the revolution were the Freedmen’s Bureau, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Black Codes. Constitutional events that sparked dispute were the three civil rights bills, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the reconstruction . Between 1860 and 1877, both constitutional. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Ku Klux Klan 851 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in their colonial government was that all colonies . wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to mfa writing control all of it.
Also, they tried to fix the way they would trade with the Indians by setting standards all would have to follow. When they were untied for a moment in time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages. II. Eisenhower Administration A. Massive retaliation; nuclear weapons prevented USSR attack. B. Containment policy to prevent war/attack. C. Interstate . Highway System to ^ US defense against Communism. D. CIA overthrowing/prevention of spread of Communism. E. Korean Armistice/Peace treaty b/w China/North Korea amp; US . F. Domino Theory, eco/mil aid to Southern Viet to act essays build stable/anti communist state. G. SEATO, helped strengthen anti-communist countries.
H. Eisenhower Doctrine, aid to any. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1089 Words | 4 Pages. reuniting the South with the North introduced a new set of significant challenges. The Congress' Reconstruction were the efforts to establish . and protect citizens' rights of freedom. Democrats led to the failure of the explanatory statement Congress' Reconstruction by forgiving those who participated in the Civil War who were still in favor of slavery and inequality. This act of Amnesty led to three major obstacles for act essays reconstruction : the emergence of the Ku Kux Klan, the development of black codes, and the Compromise of 1877. African American , American Civil War , Black people 1091 Words | 3 Pages. apart over one major issue: slavery. With the end of the Civil War came the thesis end of slavery in scored the United States. Although the former black slaves were now . free, they had no land and very few rights, and narrative tense, most did not even have family.
Though out scored, reconstruction , blacks were able to gain rights, but were continuously repressed by the white Southerners. The only way to truly enfranchise the former slaves was by effectively disenfranchising their former masters. The reign the masters had over their former. Technology Society! American Civil War , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Ku Klux Klan 1448 Words | 4 Pages. The years 1865 to 1877 mark a period of reconstruction in which the country’s main focus was to scored heal the dissertation improvement nation and bring the . Confederate states back into the Union. Reconstruction took place in two distinct phases: presidential reconstruction , which was extremely lenient, and act essays, Congressional reconstruction , which was less forgiving, but more transformative. Narrative Essay Tense! Presidential reconstruction had very limited success because President Andrew Johnson was swayed by Southern praise and act essays scored, became. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1308 Words | 4 Pages.
Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Statement! Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block “From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of Confederation provided the . United States with an effective government;” a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Although, I suppose the case could be made that the Articles of Confederation provided the means for a temporary government, only acting as a first-time attempt for the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for the colonies as a whole. Act Essays! This. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the following questions. . Write down the question you are going to be answering. Explain the reasons for the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of expository thesis 1789 to 1806. Scored! Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. Thesis 2. Majority.
Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to AP . US History! The following is a summer assignment to get you . Narrative Essay! started for the new school year. Part I: Textbook Assignment. (Use the textbook if you received it in June or download the PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the act essays scored pdf files titled “ AP US CH 1” and “ AP US Chapter 2 excerpts” Read. As you read, Outline the chapter and. Essay! Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. effects of the Revolution in act essays the period from 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class . essay.
Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). Dissertation Improvement! The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. Scored! He/she deals with the entire question (deals with extent) and answers the question from economic. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages. AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of mfa writing Good Feelings. Act Essays! while in the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in the ring of pleasure and conclusion graduate, could fatten upon act essays scored them. In Document B, John . Calhoun says, the extent of the republic exposes us to statement the greatest of calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is scored, our weakness and statement graduate school, our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads This suggests the size and distance of our growing nation was going to be another source of disunity. Because of the distance and lack. New England , President of the United States , Southern United States 834 Words | 3 Pages.
Document-Based Question: Religious Views on War Complete and submit this assignment by the due date to receive full credit. (45 points) 1. To complete this . Graded Assignment, retrieve the act essays Religious Views on War DBQ . Use this document with its essay instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the essay in past rubric throughout the process. Using the documents, compare the scored views of major world religions on war. Doctoral! What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the views of. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. 1996 ap us history free response dbq.
Throughout the period 1801-1817, the government was ruled by the Jeffersonian Republican party, whereas the Federalist Party began to slowly fade away from . public view. The Jeffersonian Republican party, led by act essays Thomas Jefferson, professed to favor a weak central government through the support of more states' rights, . that the states are independent. to. themselves. and plant, united as to everything respecting foreign nations. (Document A). On the other hand, the Federalist Party, previously led. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 1322 Words | 4 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . reconstruction and revolution in America. Many constitutional developments aided the reform movement, such as the act essays ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and growth, civil rights. Though these changes seemed like a step in act essays the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didn’t allow things to go as planned. Despite. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages. ?Teresa Swinehart Mrs.
Plimley AP US History 16 January 2015 DBQ The Civil War began in 1861 due to many political . issues between the Northern states, the Union, and essay, the Southern states, the Confederates. Although, mane people are taught the scored Civil War was entirely fought over slavery, this is untrue. Expository Thesis Statement! The North sought to regain control of the South and to keep the act essays scored Union together, while the South had no interest in the Union and wanted to keep their way of life the same as it had been for personal statement graduate school generations. Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 915 Words | 3 Pages. US HISTORY HONORS: Reconstruction Notes. into 5 military districts Headed by union Troops were sent to keep order Southern states new constitution 1. Never succeed again 2. Slavery abolished . Never extended voting rights to blacks President Reconstruction Lincoln’s 10% plan Also known as Proclamation of scored Amnesty and Reconstruction a.1. Narrative Tense! Gov would pardon all confederates ( except high ranking officials and act essays scored, criminals accused of doctoral dissertation improvement crimes against war prisoners) a.2. 10% of those on 1860 voting lists took oaths of allegiance, a confed. American Civil War , Democracy , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 725 Words | 5 Pages. During the act essays scored time period of 1860 and online, 1877 many major changes occurred. From the act essays beginning of the civil war to the fall of the personal statement school reconstruction , the . Scored! United States changed dramatically.
Nearly one hundred years after the Declaration of Independence which declared all men equal, many social and constitutional alterations were necessary to protect the rights of explanatory thesis all people, no matter their race. These social and constitutional developments that were made during 1860 to 1877 were so drastic it could be called. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 954 Words | 3 Pages. Isabella Granger 12/30/12 AP Euro Hist. DBQ essay The power of Nobility For many . centuries, the lucky people were born into noble families. It didn’t matter if they turned out to be as great as their other family members. Act Essays! They were born noble and nothing could possibly take that away from them.
The greatness of mfa writing a person could only be recognized by which family they were born into. In the 16th century, this started to change. Those who worked hard and did actions. Gentry , Louis XIII of France , Louis XIV of act essays scored France 1022 Words | 3 Pages. He saw the mfa writing Depression as akin to an act of nature, about which nothing could be done except to ride it out. 2.Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program . Act Essays Scored! attempted or achieved all of the following EXCEPT C.:-) supported the creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. 3.The “New Immigration” was made up primarily of doctoral improvement D.:-) persons from Southern and scored, Eastern Europe. 4.By “normalcy” President Warren G. Narrative Essay In Past Tense! Harding meant not only scored, peace after the recent war but also C.:-) an end to idealistic. Essay Tense! Franklin D. Act Essays! Roosevelt , Great Depression , Herbert Hoover 1672 Words | 8 Pages. Cynthia Ms.
Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were freed from their . lifetime involuntary servitude, and life for them seemed to be on the way to happiness (Document A). Improvement! An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to the South; freedmen were joyous about it, and white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in its economy and act essays, its social hierarchy (Document D). After the Civil War ended.
African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. AP Exam Essays 2001-2010 2010 AP Exam Essays 1. In what ways did ideas and values held by Puritans influence the . political, economic, and social development of the technology New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s? 2. Analyze the political, diplomatic, and military reasons for act essays scored the United States victory in the Revolutionary War. Confine your answer to the period 1775–1783. 3. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into doctoral, western territories contributed to the. American Civil War , American Revolution , Cold War 1649 Words | 5 Pages. ? US AP TERMS: 1920’s Fordney- McCumber Tariff- Created in 1922 raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and . farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods. This was a result of WWI, because the government wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Also, many industries wanted to.
African American , Albert B. Fall , Ernest Hemingway 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and well planned colony. The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . . Scored! The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the explanatory New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. Act Essays! The people in this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and the second and third born sons didn't really have an opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. Broderick Haney AP Euro Period: 1 14 September 2012 The Progressive Peasant Revolution Inhabiting the Holy Roman Empire in the 16th . century, the upper class considered peasants a mere subhuman.
Conversely, Martin Luther, a German professor of theology, influenced reformation to the German state. Society! This reformation focused on the peasants, especially the act essays scored peasant revolt of 1524. Explanatory Statement! As the revolution continued, the Peasant Parliament formed to coordinate activates and strive for optimistic results. Bourgeoisie , Feudalism , Middle class 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Act Essays! US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans and the . Trans-Mississippi West a. Doctoral! The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. Scored! American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. Society Essay! DBQ After the devastation of World War I, the vast majority of people saw the act essays scored world in a totally different light. So many people had died. . The future of society seemed pessimistic and dark at best. The Big Four had come together in France to sign the Treaty of Versailles, officially ending the war in 1918. I agree with the statement that the Treaty of Versailles was ill-created, bringing about far more problems than it solved and doctoral dissertation, later paving the road to World War II. Political, social, and economic.
Adolf Hitler , Armistice with Germany , League of Nations 880 Words | 3 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. Act Essays Scored! Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Fall It is November 9, the Year of Our Lord 1799, and a . battered French army begins the arduous climb up the plant growth Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and bone chilling temperatures to come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and France’s savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. Act Essays Scored! There is online, a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in a painting by artist.
Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. nominated James Weaver. (Tariff reduction, progressive income tax, silver coins) Sub-treasury plan: farmers store nonperishable merchandise in gov. . warehouses, receive loans using crops, sell merchandise when prices rise African-Americans After Reconstruction : Used intimidation, fraud, and voting requirements (literacy, poll tax, property) to disenfranchise blacks; segregation/lynching Convict-lease system: employers leased prison gangs and forced them to work under slavery-like conditions Civil Rights. Democratic Party , Free Silver , Grover Cleveland 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Unit 2 DBQ : Discuss the extent to which the religious schism during the sixteenth century was symptomatic of political, social, and economic . problems. The religious schism took place in the 16th century, mainly between the Catholic Church and Protestants. During these times, many changes were brought forth to Europe during this schism. Act Essays Scored! Although the religious schism brought forth an age of Reformation of the Catholic church, the religious schism started wars, revolts across Germany following. Anglicanism , Catholic Church , Christianity 789 Words | 3 Pages. parties lie to us and the political speakers mislead us . We were told two years ago to expository explanatory go to work and raise a big crop that was . all we needed…..we raised the big crop, and what came of it?
Eight-cent corn. Ten-cent oats.” (Document G) Farmers were discontent and scored, tired of political parties misleading them. They were told to raise big crops, and then were told that they suffered from overproduction. In Mary Elizabeth Lease’s speech she also states, “10,000 children, so statistics tell us , starve to conclusion school death. Agriculture , Government , History of technology 1455 Words | 4 Pages. AP US HISTORY Summer Assignment Francis Lewis HS 1. Scored! What distinguished the American Revolution from others? . The American Revolution was different from all other revolutions because it was the first successful attempt that established a government.
Another thing that distinguished this revolution from the others is that it did not occur from doctoral improvement within. 2. Why does Ellis think this is scored, significant? Ellis thinks that the distinguishing factors are significant because the American. Alexander Hamilton , Benjamin Franklin , Founding Fathers of the essays United States 1630 Words | 6 Pages. Scored! DBQ Essay The game of cricket between 1880-2005 played a very important political role in South Asia. Cricket both strengthened the . relationship between Britain and India, and created good social changes. Although, the game weakened the religious and political rivalry according to the different perspectives of ten different sources.
Cricket helped unify and strengthen the growth essays relationship between Britain and India. Scored! As shown in document 3, Cecil Headlam, an English cricketer and doctoral improvement, historian, says that. Cricket , India , India national cricket team 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Act Essays Scored! ?Julia Nash, Luke Ross Dr. Expository Thesis! Barnes AP European History Oct 10 2014 The peasants’ revolt in the German states between 1524 and 1526 was the . result of growing resentment towards the nobility and the church. Peasants, craftsmen, and poor soldiers formed small armies that destroyed infrastructure and act essays scored, demanded more rights. Although, the online fighting did make the peasants’ demands known to the nobility, the revolt was harshly crushed killing more than 100,000 insurgents. Among the many causes of the peasants’. Bavaria , Catholic Church , Church of England 1014 Words | 5 Pages. DBQ : Rise and Fall of Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Iran, Mughal India What factors contemporaneous observers attributed the rise and fall of the . Scored! Muslim empires? which factors made them successful, which factors weakened empires? Discuss overall strengths and weaknesses additional documents to help access rise and fall of Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals?
Documents: Document 1: SAFAVID “great liking for warfare and weapons of war…fine soldier and very skilled, and his men so dexterous—use of muskets”?”realm. Istanbul , Jahangir , Mughal Empire 1054 Words | 3 Pages. the way Japan deals with military issues that affect the country is in a western manor of conclusion graduate bureaucracy. Act Essays Scored! The “Treaty of Portsmouth” marked the end of the . Russo-Japanese War and is made to sound as if its a contract to technology in our say to Russia don't mess with us or we will mess you up, and has an air of act essays Nationalism in it. All of the growth documents in the group show that the west had slowly influenced just about act essays, every aspect of essays Japan. th th Japanese trade expanded in the 19 and early 20 centuries as in documents. 19th century 938 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Introduction: In the scored late 18th century, Europe experienced a substantial amount of urbanization due to the increase of industrialized . Doctoral Improvement! factories, especially in the textile industry. Act Essays! Question: Describe the growth essays inventions that improved production and the European marketplace through the pre-Industrial Revolution.
How did these advances affect social classes? Document 1: Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants (a major center of scored wool manufacture in Yorkshire), 1791. Defending the use of online machines. Act Essays Scored! . Industrial Revolution , Loom , Pg. 99 826 Words | 3 Pages. Technology Society Essay! ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. Act Essays Scored! 1: 1. Dissertation Improvement! The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to give them corn and scored, bread. . The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of conclusion food and act essays scored, they had no houses to live in. This led to online sickness and starvation amongst the settlers.
2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. ? Tips for writing a “9” DBQ : 1. As you read the act essays scored question, come up with at least three categories. Then try to fill in as much specific . factual information that you can think of, and expository, put this into act essays, the categories. It’s important to do this BEFORE you read the growth essays documents, so that you don’t forget them when you are analyzing the documents. 2. After you do this, and act essays scored, ONLY after, start reading the documents. Growth Essays! When looking at act essays the documents, be sure to look at who is the author/painter/political cartoonist/historian. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 713 Words | 3 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of America became . immersed in national pride which led to online mfa writing Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. However, problems and disagreements grew behind the facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the dissent between the north and the south and different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was.
American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. Scored! world? How is your opinion similar to expository explanatory thesis statement or different from the act essays purpose of education in the years between 1860 and 1900? Cite specific evidence to support . your position. 3. Society Essay! Describe the factors (1860 – 1900) that led the scored farmer, the “backbone of the US economy”, to organize against capitalists (industrialists) and government. 4. Explain specific ways that the Farmer’s Alliance movement addressed the factors that led to organization. Chapter 17 – “Or Does It Explode?” 1. Technology Essay! What is scored, Zinn’s. Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. 623 Words | 2 Pages.
Reconstruction Rebecca Howard University of Phoenix #1 I found that I had mixed feelings as to if the Reconstruction . Narrative In Past Tense! was a splendid failure or not so I did some research. Act Essays! The Reconstruction is surrounded by controversy. Eric Froner asserts that the Reconstruction did not achieve the radical goals that were hoped for but the narrative essay in past tense Reconstruction did offer African Americans in act essays the south a vison of a free society even if only in our essay, temporarily. Historians have categorized the Reconstruction as a total. African American , Democratic Party , Reconstruction era of the United States 778 Words | 5 Pages. AP European History 24 October 2012 The Dutch: Divided and Deeply Indebted The signing of the Peace of Westphalia in scored 1648 ended the Thirty . Years’ War and narrative essay, brought about the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, a coalition of the seven provinces of the Netherlands. During the mid 17th century, the Dutch became the wealthiest and most active trading and scored, shipbuilding people in Europe.
By dominating most trading routes in the Baltic and Atlantic Seas, the Dutch Republic earned recognition. Amsterdam , Baltic Sea , Dutch East India Company 1166 Words | 3 Pages. ?History 102 DBQ #1: Reconstruction’s Failure Historical Context: The Civil War may have settled some significant national problems, but it . created many more. Yes, slavery was abolished, secession had been refuted, and the supremacy of the national government confirmed. But the cost of Union victory—in lost lives, destroyed property and sectional bitterness—was staggering, and created huge new problems and tasks. Perhaps the doctoral improvement most challenging task facing our exhausted nation was the future status. African American , Democratic Party , Ku Klux Klan 2318 Words | 10 Pages.
Reconstruction : The Post War Era Lindsay Pone Professor Goldstein History 105 Strayer University 01/30/2013 . Reconstruction : The Post Civil War Era Friday April 12, 1861, America embarked into act essays, war with its biggest adversary; America! The American Civil War broke out, and what was believed to be a quick battle by the North, turned out to be a long bloody four years and left the explanatory thesis statement country devastated. President Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1366 Words | 4 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial –Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) “Scarface” Al Capone begins 6 years of . Act Essays Scored! gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S. State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindbergh’s first solo flight across the personal conclusion school Atlantic; Sacco and Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in scored The Jazz Singer, the first talking film U.S. Online! citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Witchcraft DBQ (Many of the act essays scored people who were persecuted as witches from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries were those of a seemingly . inferior mindset, those who are blamed for problems in the community and those who were social outcasts.) This time period occurred throughout the narrative essay Protestant, Catholic and Scientific revolutions. Act Essays Scored! The victims of the witch trials were usually persecuted in Europe as a whole however focused on areas like South Western Europe. Plant Growth! Witches were usually people who were. Ageing , Death , Elderly care 1133 Words | 3 Pages.
AP United States History: Syllabus Mr. Scored! Adrian Carpio TERRA Environmental Research Institute firstname.lastname@example.org Website (for now): . http://therailsplitter.wikispaces.com Course Description Advanced Placement United States History is a fast-paced and rigorous course designed to provide students with the analytical skills and factual knowledge necessary to critically examine various issues in American History and relate them to events today. Because of one’s opportunity to earn college. American Civil War , Americas , Cold War 5291 Words | 25 Pages.
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family essay writing and degrading system. The varied settings of the stories range from Maryland to Massachusetts, from New Orleans to New York City. Antebellum southern slaves lived in act essays scored family units. The one or two-room cabins in the slave quarters usually housed one family each, albeit more than one family sporadically occupied one shelter. Slave families tried to live a private life that allowed them to dissertation improvement, be more than a slave. They married and raised children which placed meaning to their lives. In 1860, about act essays, half of. Genogram Narrative Family Systems Essay. This church is a branch off of the Mormon Church. As my parents grew older and were away from their families, they each began searching the Bible and felt that the church they had come from was not Biblically sound, and together they made a decision to leave the expository explanatory statement church.
They began searching for churches, and scored eventually found the Church of the Nazarene. This is the church that I grew up in. As soon as my mother and father separated, my Dad became involved and a member of the Presbyterian Church. Biological Narrative Essay examples. manners. Those are qualities that I still hold true to this day. The fourth stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. The next stage of development in my narrative is Industry vs. inferiority.
During this time I begin gravitating to sports, basketball in particular. My parents, coaches, and narrative essay teachers all gave me positive feedback on act essays my scholastic achievements as well as my accomplishments on personal statement conclusion graduate school the court. During. year grades are the most important, and I had already passed the point of saving my grades anymore. Scored. Everything felt so hopeless, I thought I had to accept the fact that I would be going to a low-ranked college, face the judgment of my friends and tense family, and make some major changes to the future I had so carefully crafted. However, the more I thought about it, the more it dawned on me that it shouldn’t matter if I wasn’t getting into the top schools of my choice, that comparing myself to. Family Perspectives Essay example. appropriate behavior within the society.” (Anonymous (2007) Pg. 2) “Some people believe that the family is the most important social institution because it is scored our first encounter with socialization processes. Plant Growth. From a sociological perspective, the family is not only viewed as an institution, but also as a social system and a social group.” (Eshleman, J.R. (2000) Pg. Scored. 380). “While it is true that the family unit in doctoral improvement the United States is no longer a major economic producing unit, it is a significant economic.
Understanding of “family businesses” in the national context In Germany family enterprises are defined as enterprises where the scored owner or a member of the owner family also manages the enterprise. Condition is that the growth essays person or the family in act essays scored question holds at least 50 % of the votes of an enterprise. Online. These enterprises are called “Mittelstand”. There is a so called wider definition of family enterprises. The term of control is the same but it is not necessary that a member of the owner family manages. Functionalism and the Family Essay examples. an analogy of the family to a 'warm bath'. This theory suggests that the family relieves the pressures of everyday life and recharges the batteries of individuals , just like a warm bath would. However , material from the item shown me that functionalists present a far too rosy and uncritical view of the act essays scored family life.
Feminists and Marxists argue that functionalists ignore the families 'dark side' which involves conflict and exploitation.Marxists like Zaretsky say the improvement family acts as a 'comfort. The Classical Narrative System Essay examples. The characters of a classic narrative display there personality traits very openly and are very genuine. Characters are always relateable by the audience - the little sister, the guy who doesn’t get the girl, the strange neighbour. This is important in creating the fictional realism and act essays scored getting the audience emotionally involved with the characters.
The hero, the protagonist whom the narrative revolves, is always a white, upper middle class man. His iconography can vary from mfa writing, genre to genre. Review of Family Therapy Essay example. people act in the ways that are reinforced.” Through this approach family members learned techniques to communicate their issues to each other in health environment. Act Essays Scored. In addition, they learn through both techniques how to challenge their negative or discouraging thoughts in technology in our society essay a more positive and meaningful way. Act Essays Scored. CBT is one of the most recognized and effective forms of treatment. The only draw back to this approach would be families have to be willing to do the work, ready to change and technology essay participate. Mathematics and act essays Family Members Essay example. module. Program Design: 2. Required outputs: Average family age, names of family members from Texas. Narrative. Required inputs: Family member names, their ages and state where they reside.
Variable Declartions and defintions: Following variables will be defined: String array s_Names to hold names. Integer array i_Age to hold ages. String array s_State to hold state Integer i_Count to act essays, hold number of family members The user entering the family names, ages and state of residence will be stored in the. Family Business Models Essay examples. book offer those interested in the family business? 1 Chapter 1 History of technology, family business management 4 First perspective: issues facing family business Second perspective: succession planning Third perspective: drafting a family constitution Fourth perspective: governance Fifth perspective: family communication 6 9 12 14 15 Chapter 2 Family business management formula 18 Structural management of the family business Family complexity Business complexity Effects. Heritage: Family and Life Essay example. The writer uses a lot of imagery to describe her family; often comparing and act essays scored relating them to dissertation improvement, a memory or circumstance that she remembers from her life. The descriptive words she chooses come across as emotional; she hasn’t always been confident in her individuality, but eventually comes to act essays scored, the realization that it is expository her heritage that makes her unique; different from others, but in a positive way. She comes to understand that she is not crazy because she thinks differently than others, but that her. Autism Impact on act essays scored the Family Essay examples.
At a family meeting, one can share their thoughts and plant growth feelings concerning the child with autism or any concerns. Scored. It is technology society important for a child to have special time with a parent, but also important to act essays scored, be together as a family. As the siblings get older, they will become more concerned and may feel embarrassed to be in online mfa writing public with a sibling with autism. Finding activities that can be shared by your child with autism can be a challenge. Parents need time away from their children as a couple and individually.
The Influence of Media in Brazilian Families Essay examples. this not only affects national but also family identity. By charging the act essays novelas with highly political subtexts and social issues (such as drugs, homosexuality and racism) which are subsequently discussed in almost all levels of society (Creeber, 2001, p.59; Porto, 2010) forces a change of behaviour in the private sphere as well. These tools might be seen as reflecting demographic, economic and social changes since the narrative 1970's (Kottak, 2009, p.36), for example, the depiction on agrarian reform and the. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Essay example.
learned that ignorance is the worst enemy of all nations and act essays scored that slavery would not make this world a better place to live. Moreover, world’s population has learned that education is the expository secret to success and that moral values are really vital for the family, a fact with which slavery was not clearly understood or slaveholders did not care for it as much as they should have because was convenient for them. As an illustration to ignorance, the author expresses in the book that Mrs. Scored. Sophia Hugh taught. Structural and Strategic Family Therapy Essay examples. Families are considered rule-based systems whose structure is sufficiently objectively recognizable from the outside and can be influenced and targeted by skillful therapeutic interventions. Therapeutically useful are methods of joining and enactment (Truscott, 2010), prescriptions, confrontations, dealing with secret coalitions, and circular questioning and paradoxical directives (Truscott, 2010). Structural and strategic concepts focus on personal statement school specific patterns of behavior but differ in their circular. Assess the Functionalist View of the Family. Act Essays Scored. Essay examples.
states, the doctoral family only have two basic functions which are primary socialisation; where the children are first moulded to conform mainstream values and stabilization of adult personalities; where the scored two adults balance each other and help sort out expository explanatory statement stresses of everyday life. Act Essays Scored. Therefore the functionalist view of the family is idealistic as it ignores the ‘dark side’ of the family; it is narrative deterministic where it ignores the fact that children actively create their own personalities, and act essays scored ignores family diversity. Food Insecurity and the Low Income Family Essay example. food deprivation and overeating, and high levels of stress can all lead to weight gain. The studies show that foods that are more commonly accessed by technology the low income families are cheaper, higher in fat, calories and in sodium. Act Essays. A diet based on these types of foods leads to weight gain and explanatory statement obesity, which is why the low income family are more affected by obesity than any other group.
Skepticism of people’s true need in food insecure households ties into act essays scored the support of the explanatory thesis statement federal Supplemental Nutrition. Perceptions of Latino families on Their child#x27;s education Essay example. involved in our students’ education so that these students succeed in act essays school. If there is parental involvement, we need to understand why schools like Sacramento High School and United for Success in Oakland, both which have a high percentage of narrative essay in past tense, Latino families, struggle to get parents into events and in the classroom. Many educators question why they have hard times getting Latino parents to come to school events. “Why can’t. Family in Williams#x27; The Glass Menagerie Essay examples. escape to a fantasyland. This silly little girl has the scored ability to run away from a situation and join the creatures, made of doctoral dissertation improvement, glass, and become their friends. Laura?s saying,?
I?have my glass collection (82),? as it is the only thing in her world is an example of how big a part these transparent animals are in act essays Laura?s life. Tense. Her fake world can be seen through her never growing up and staying adolescent with her mother. This pathetic mouse of a woman stays out of college and ignorant. When asked where she. Patient and Family Centered Care in Nursing Essay example.
develop trust with the patient and family and discuss details about the act essays scored patient and their treatment. There are ways to online mfa writing, improve this type of care, but it will take dedication and a hospital wide effort. Implementing mandatory training by professionals on how to give patient centered care should be incorporated into act essays yearly competencies. Secondly, dealing with high patient to nurse ratios need to be examined so the nurse can spend more time with the patient and family. Achieving a first good impression. The Negative Impact of Television on the Family Essay example. brother and me, it separates the family.
Separating the plant growth essays family is allowing family to not bond. From reality to articles, it is visible that television does hurt relationships because a person ignoring another person in a conversation does negatively affects the individuals. Television had successfully change family’s relationships since it had affect individual lives, especially children in communication and facing their problems. Act Essays Scored. The way children act is a factor why families don’t communicate because. Assess Functionalsu and New Right View of the expository thesis statement Family Essay example.
modern functions in the family such as regulating sexual behaviour and the increase in parental involvement in their education. Scored. Other includes the doctoral dissertation being responsible in the rearing of children and caring for dependent people whether young or old. All these factors contribute to the changing family life and act essays their morals. More and more people are starting to argue like Fletcher that the nuclear family is the dominant family structure but that its modifying over time for example mothers are now getting. The Impact of the Modern Family on Life Span Development Essay example. The point is that no matter the shape size color or origin of the family, the group needs to behave as a family.
A family supports each other, but also has rules for acceptable behavior. Developmental Theories Development reflects the explanatory statement influence of act essays scored, several environmental systems, according to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory. Narrative In Past. His theory identifies the family is one of the act essays microsystem in which the individual lives. These Microsystems can also include peers, school, and neighborhood. Adlerian Family Therapy Theorized by Alfred Adler Essay example. The family value shapes and aids in the children’s development. Adlerian concept of family value occurs when both parents have similar values they support.
Family values are shared by the parents and narrative children learn they are important, children are obligated to take a position on the values. The children may choose to undermine, ignore, support, or defy the act essays values. The common family values are centered on morals, religion, finances, and education. Family values are important to shaping children’s. colonists’ ongoing need for territory and expansion. Therefore, on June 20, 1675, the King Philips War began (Schultz and Tougias 18). Rowlandson’s narrative begins with the Indians wreaking havoc on the town of Lancaster. For example, her second line sets a foreboding tone for the rest of expository thesis statement, her narrative by describing a brutal attack on a helpless family: “There were five persons taken in act essays one house; the father, and the mother and a sucking child, they knocked on the head; the other two they took and.
Example of Braided Narrative Essay. On his days off, my father would take me there to play games and eat pizza. Filled with bright flashing lights, fun filled games and amazing food; it was a place of expository thesis statement, fun and a mecca for act essays, all young children. Usually, I would just sit and doctoral dissertation eat pizza and scored play in growth the ball pit. But this particular time that we went, I wanted to play a game. Being the child that I was, I just wanted to hop right up to act essays, it and go. My skeptic father on other hand just sat back and watched the people in front of us play.
This. Descriptive Narrative Essay example. She heard people telling everyone else who to vote for, yet she did not hear her name. All of her life, she dreamed of becoming Homecoming Queen, but how could she if she was not even royalty? Everyone voted, yet she still did not put her own name down because she felt as if she should not vote for herself for anything. Lindsay did not want to hear the results of who would be on the court that night, but she was surprised. Doctoral Improvement. When the principal announced her name as the scored third representative of personal statement conclusion, her grade. Training and Narrative Report Essay.
on narrative report OJT in hotel at . Narrative Report For Ojt In Hotel And Restaurant Samples : Hotel . www.docbig.com/narrative/narrative-report-for-ojt-in-ho. Narrative Report For Ojt In Hotel And Restaurant Samples. Act Essays Scored. Hotel And Restaurant Industry. Report For Scottish Executive Education And Young People Research . Example Narrative Report of Ojt for Hotel and plant growth essays Restaurant . Scored. - Docstoc www.docstoc.com/docs/70634956/Example-Narrative-Report-. Feb 1, 2011 . Example Narrative Report of Ojt for Hotel and. Structure of Personal Narrative Essay. to clearly indicate to the reader what happened first, next, and last. Some time transition words are next, finally, during, after, when, and later.
Transitions In a narrative essay, a new paragraph marks a change in essay tense the action of act essays scored, a story, or a move from school, action to reflection. Act Essays. Paragraphs should connect to expository, one another. For example, the end of act essays, one paragraph might be: “I turned and ran, hoping the bear hadn’t noticed me”, and the start of the next might be: “There are many strategies for doctoral dissertation, surviving. How they’re being treated like they’re not humans. Tubman wants them to o something to stop slavery. Another element was how they would emphasize the cruelty of the slave masters in act essays scored the slave narratives. Many accounts go in to detail of online, many of the things the masters did. For example, many recall witnessing or experiencing the whipping themselves. Act Essays Scored. 'It is better that a dozen slaves suffer under the lash, than that the overseer should be convicted, in the presence of the slaves, of having been at. Narrative therapies can consist of breaking down the problem in the creation of a new narrative that creates a new story in the client’s life. Part One: Narrative Therapeutic Approach Daniel (2009) states, narrative articulation of a client’s experiences are an essential component in many forms of therapy.
Narrative Therapy’s foundation is centered upon the “narrative metaphor – the idea that our sense of reality is organized and maintained through the stories by society which we circulate knowledge. arrived back at our condo around ten. The best part about that night? The fact that no one remembered there key thinking that surely someone else would bring theirs. Every locksmith in town was closed so we ended up sleeping in the Escalade. The family adventure of ‘07 turned out to be so much more than what any of us had bargained for. Besides the few predicaments above, there were many other miscellaneous mishaps on the way home as well.
However, as crazy as that trip may have been, I had more. and went back closer to the mother. I held her daughter’s hand and could feel the energy of how scared she was. All I could think about was the worst-case scenario: what if she died? Where would this precious little girl go? Did she have other family to scored, take care of plant, her? The ambulance. return back home to visit should not be called a return, but merely a passing by. By changing from “Dee” to act essays, “Wangero”, it is as if she has never existed in the first place. Personal Graduate. Another similarity I found is a bit complex, but also relates to a sense of family. It occurs when Dee says, “I couldn’t bear it any longer, being named after the people who oppress me.” (280).
This means that Dee feels she is act essays scored being held back from her culture not being named something more close to what her background is and that. Essay on Book Critique Family to plant, Family. In the final chapter of the book, the writers detail the importance of Biblical based evangelism for all of those persons involved in the family unit. The writers advocate what they call the act essays FIRM approach to essay, evangelism, which involves: F - ask about family, I - ask about their interests-listen, R - ask about religion-listen, and act essays M - share the message (114-115). Lastly, the writers provide some practical methods for personal graduate school, sharing the Gospel, which include some scripture memorization and tips on a salvation-testimony. For example one day I met a girl in scored university that was the first day of online, my university life when I met that girl the first thing that came in my mind is that she will be very polite and sincere friend of mine. Act Essays Scored. I observed her many times and conclusion school always she proved herself.
That was my talent by which I got a very nice and good friend. Observing ability saved me from many hurdles. It saved me from bad company and falling into many bad habits. My talent also saved me from act essays, cheaters. It helps me to build self-confidence. Comparing the Narrative Voice in The Storm and Hands Essay example. The narrator utilizes a subtle approach that leaves the reader believing that Calixta’s love for technology in our society, Alcee is still alive and that the effect of the storm arouses the former passion in the unsuspecting couple. This is quite evident in scored the narrator’s description of Calixta’s emotional state as she glanced up at Alcee the fear in her liquid blue eyes had given place to a drowsy gleam that unconsciously betrayed a sensuous desire (Chopin 363).
Alcee is also aflame with passion when he looked in her eyes. discontinuation of the in our society family name is an extremely strong suggestion that they cannot be deemed a family at all. For the two rarely come into act essays scored contact; very much satirized in the novel and a subject of irony. Frank had never visited his father in his home and doctoral dissertation it is scored heavily suggested that Frank’s later residence is only because of the convenient location of his lover, Jane Fairfax, who is also situated in Highbury. The evident weakness of family relationships within the discussed families can be used. impact they have on the audience, not because of the nature of the story but because the audience will see it from online mfa writing, different perspectives allowing the viewer to draw his/her own conclusion unlike linear narratives where the viewer is forced on a ‘what you get is what you see’. Crash is a perfect example to demonstrate the opposite of this, since the film strongly revolves around racism the viewer sees the act essays scored story from the stereotyped ‘young black gangsta’ and the ‘white racist cop’ instead of only seeing. Personal Narrative - Graduation Day Essay example. This is one of the most important rites of passage in technology in our essay my life and scored I don’t feel the difference.
The only kind of change I felt was being uncomfortable. We all had to dress up in underneath our robes and I was sick of it. I knew that I would start to become sad but not until later. Amber is already sad and almost crying over any mention of the future and leaving friends. She’s the doctoral dissertation one of the three who is personable and scored Ann and I knew she would deeply feel the thesis affects of scored, graduating.
Even though Ann. Personal Narrative - Randomness of Human Relationships Essay example. It's merely an excuse. It allows us to think of plant growth essays, friendship as a connecting force that flows through the act essays universe, inviting already-compatible people to make acquaintance. [The in] allows us to think of friendship as a connecting force that flows through the universe, inviting already-compatible people to make acquaintance. Consider how you met your friends. You probably remember most meetings as lucky encounters in which you were statistically quite fortunate to plant essays, meet someone so similar. Act Essays. If we. In this way, narrative therapy is comprehensive since it does not merely focus on the future, and only the future. It also explores the past as a means of dealing with the future in a more effective way. The belief by expository explanatory thesis statement narrative therapists that the narrative is multi-dimensional allows great latitude for those that are trying to solve their problems, rewrite their stories, and move forward with their lives (Morgan, 2000). II.
Origins of Narrative Therapy The history of narrative therapy is very. Essay on Integration of Narrative Therapy Hristian Counselling. Narrative therapy’s philosophy fits within the parameters of this terminology. Narrative Therapy is quite unique in its philosophy and techniques (Payne, 2006, p.158) Michael White and David Epston re-considered numerous reputable therapies that were used with families throughout Europe and North America, and act essays implemented fundamental aspects within narrative therapy, these included “history of ideas, postmodern philosophy, social psychology, anthropology, feminist theory and literary theory” (White. Though I cannot speak for other families, I can cite my own family life as being part of the reason for the problems that I work through today. As Ehrenreicht says the Family is the place where we go for comfort and to relax, but it is narrative essay that very notion of family being a safe haven makes it all that much worse when problems inevitably arise.
The popularity of act essays scored, therapy groups that Ehrenreicht refers to really show that there is a major problem with our ideas about family. Knowing that there is a problem. madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) When she chose to smile on me, I always wanted to thank her. (http://ux1.eiu.edu/ madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) “The action was so graceful and doctoral dissertation improvement inclusively benign.” (http://ux1.eiu.edu/ madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) “The last way narrative is different from descriptive writing is they both captures the audience attention and give detail information about the essays. It appeals to scored, your sense of smell, taste, hearing, seeing, touch. “My judgment is mfa writing that rich undergo cruel trails and. The rules of every family operate to a set of principles.
An example may be that when dad talks, everyone listens, and this rule differs from culture to scored, culture. The role of every individual in the family varies and each family member has a role they must adhere to. Many families alter the rules and roles as time changes within life. Both verbal and non-verbal communication is important in family structure because this is the way information is passed between one another. Proximity plays a large. Essay Photographers Build a Narrative Story. morbid piece for mfa writing, the Victorian era, constructed from five different negatives to create a scene depicting a girl on her deathbed surrounded by her family. While this was not accepted by critics and audiences at act essays scored the time due to believing it was not a suitable subject, the photograph shows the early interpretations of constructing and staging a narrative type image in a photographic form. Doctoral Dissertation Improvement. It could be considered as a very early suggestion of a cinematic still, where we as an audience are questioning. Narrative Standpoint Mill on the Floss Essay.
autobiographical, it is not just a regurgitation of Eliot’s life. Maggie, after all, never permanently runs off with the man she loves. In many ways Maggie is the version of Eliot that never break off with her family and struck out on her own. The Mill on the Floss is a novel whose characters and narrative styles ties in scored with autobiographical details of George Eliot. The narrator provides us with an in depth perspective into expository explanatory thesis all of the scored characters and gives us knowledge their thoughts and. Compare and Contrast: the Advantage of Narratives over plant essays Descriptive. are in free form while in narrative writing, are more structured. While narratives typically use the first person point of view, descriptive essays generally use a second person point of view. Narratives are interesting because they tend to be written in different voices either first person or third person. Typically, narratives are written in act essays first person.
Writing in first person gives the essay personality. In “I Want a Wife”, the author uses this technique. Society Essay. For example: “I want a wife who will.
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curtis white essays Can a corporate-dominated Web become an environment conducive to literary activity? The novelist, essayist, and cultural critic Curtis White is skeptical. Responding to criticisms of his account of the devolution of literary publishing and reflecting on act essays, the prevalence of market-driven values in online exchanges, White doubts whether literature can distinguish itself in the noisy new media ecology, which he likens to a high-tech prison house. For an statement, essay that situates Curtis White's The Middle Mind in the context of recent debates about the role of difficulty in aesthetics, see Rone Shavers' The End of Agape: On Debates around Gaddis in Paper Empire: William Gaddis and act essays scored the World System . (Ed.
Joseph Tabbi and Rone Shavers.) In October of 2011, I posted an expository thesis statement, essay titled “The Late Word” concerning the act essays scored devolution of literary publishing on the Lapham’s Quarterly website. The argument of that essay can be simplified in narrative tense the following few points: Literature has always been about the struggle for the institutional authority to say what would count as literature; With the act essays slow death of bookstores and the publishing industry, literature seems to be disappearing for lack of interest; publishers aren’t interested, and agents, critics, the reading public, and even the postmodern professoriate (with its enduring fascination with popular culture, and its bad faith “celebration” of multiculturalism) are now so indifferent that the very concept of literature is on the verge of extinction; What is taking literature’s place appears to be the Great Library of Amazon, a super-sized Babel made all of “content units”; This is not necessarily cause for grief because it was never literature that we cared most about (“it is damned from plant, one end to the other”); what we have cared about is literature’s socio-spiritual capacity for scored destabilizing the expository statement familiar and revealing the act essays Real, especially that Real in statement which change is real (Williams again: “it’ll be good if the authentic spirit of change is upon it”) ( Korea in Hell 16) There were many comments on my essay left at Lapham’s , most of act essays scored them dismissive or hostile. One of the things that has been most discouraging to me in recent years is the tendency among some of my readers to substitute familiar ideas for the unfamiliar ideas that I’m actually trying to plant essays develop. So, with The Middle Mind , Dwight McDonald’s “middle brow” was pasted over my idea-that the products of act essays mass culture are successfully “passing” for art-just as if a poster for the circus - coming soon! - were pasted over a denunciation of clowns and tiny dogs. In the present case, most of the comments seemed to technology in our essay reflect the idea that I was just another mourner for the passing of book publishing and something called literature. The following complaints were made (I’ve tried to list them in some sort of logical order): I was wrong to act essays worry that literature would die with the end of doctoral improvement book publishing; Literature will thrive just as it always has because readers find books they like and scored tell their friends about them (that’s what Twitter is for!); There is no need to worry about doctoral improvement, Amazon; it’s simply the act essays new vehicle for literature just as the printed word was once a new vehicle that replaced scribes and declamators; I’m so last century.
Given how far modern literary publishing has come from its origins with publisher/bookstores like Murray’s in London during the rise of English Romanticism (see original essay), and how concentrated it is personal conclusion graduate school now in a high-tech corporate monopoly, it’s a little late to get weepy over its demise. My argument is: let it go. Act Essays! It’s always been compromised. The institutions of literature have always worked against the life of the work of art as much as they have worked for it. Historically, literary institutions have done two things well. First, they have managed the unruliness of language by creating canons of the major, the minor, and the non-canonical, aka the irrelevant.
If the large part of the conclusion work of the scored poem/novel is to “enstrange” the world as we know it and open it up to the possibility of expository thesis statement alternate arrangements, any canon can only serve the opposite scored purpose: to stabilize. In other words, in literary canons the plant essays work of art becomes part of an ideological apparatus, whether religious, aristocratic, capitalist, socialist, or even ballyhooed multicultural. Herbert Marcuse puts it this way in One Dimensional Man : What they [the Romantics] recall and scored preserve in memory pertains to the future: images of a gratification that would dissolve the society which suppresses it. Personal Statement Conclusion! The great surrealist art and scored literature of the ‘Twenties and ‘Thirties has still recaptured them in their subversive and liberating function … Some of these [surrealist] images pertain to contemporary literature and survive in its most advanced creations. What has been invalidated is their subversive force, their destructive content - their truth … The absorbent power of society depletes the plant essays artistic dimension by scored, assimilating its antagonistic contents. (63-64) Thus is literature damned. This should not be understood as a renunciation of the works in growth themselves. Taken on their own terms, almost all of the scored individual works within the established art canons - whether literature, music, or painting - were, in their time, “subversive,” to use Marcuse’s word, in one way or another, and beautifully so. Unhappily, it is never the subversive Beethoven or Wagner that is presented in symphony halls. No one introduces Das Rheingold by describing how Wagner paid for hand grenades in the Dresden uprising of 1849, or that his depiction of the alienated labor of the Niebelungen was very likely derived (through his friendship with Bakunin) from Marx. It is only the mystified aura of their canonical “greatness” that is displayed. (And yet within this mystified aura you can still feel the artist, like the beat of an animal heart, slowly approaching through fog.)
Let us remember: Beethoven refused every authorized role he was offered. He was rumpled, rude, and misanthropic. He dedicated a work to the French Revolution in mfa writing spite of the act essays fact that he lived on the patronage of the Austrian nobility, and in personal statement spite of the fact that in scored 1802 Napoleon was preparing for war with Austria. Anyone else would have been hanged for sedition. He didn’t bite the hand that fed him; he ate it. Just as importantly, he refused the formal orthodoxy of essay in past classicism. In the fourth movement of his Second Symphony , his last work in something like the classical idiom, he actually farts on classicism. After that, the “new path” of the Eroica . Beethoven’s music is a refusal of all reigning ideologies and orthodoxies that would not see its equal - as social revolt - until Jimi Hendrix played the Star Spangled Banner at Woodstock. This brings me to the second thing that canons do well: they celebrate their victims . True, most artists do yearn for the sort of enduring fame that canonization claims to offer (deluded though that fame is), but the act essays power of their work, when it is online mfa writing authentic, is always in its indifference to what the critics and canonizers think. Of the act essays scored Romantics, Keats was the most keenly aware of this difficulty.
In his letters he wrote, “There is doctoral improvement no greater Sin after the seven deadly than to flatter oneself into act essays an idea of being a great Poet” (261). And, “with a great poet [sic!] the online mfa writing sense of Beauty overcomes every other consideration” (277). And yet, scrupulous though he was, Keats took consolation in predicting that after his death he would be acknowledged as one of the “English poets.” In short, he felt that there was a place in the canon - right next to Spenser, down a few seats from scored, Shakespeare - waiting for him. The ossification of reputations in Great Traditions is like the summer powwow to which white people flock in their minivans in order to dissertation don war bonnets, paint their faces, and celebrate their genocidal “heritage.” Ah! Beethoven! Ah! Jimi! Just more dead injuns. As for the promise of digital culture and our Amazonian future, is act essays it possible to narrative essay have there a literature that works through the act essays spirit of online mfa writing change, of act essays scored enstrangement, of refusal, and in which the sense of dissertation improvement Beauty (whatever Keats meant by that vexed word) overcomes every other consideration?
I suppose. But it’s helpful to scored remember just what a rich and difficult thing Keatsian beauty is. In a sense, it enstranges by doctoral dissertation improvement, re-collecting an object’s original intimacy. It’s as if Keat’s is recalling the thing’s true familiarity. The poem breaks the crust of habitual expectation and stereotype by abandoning the self’s ordinary perspective in an act of sympathy for scored the existential integrity of others, even if only for Keats’s famous sparrow. This is negative capability. Can this deference to essays the dignity of being happen in act essays the context of a Web dominated by corporations whose job is in our basically to create rigid market identities so it can better sell them? Is it possible to do your business through Amazon and be alienated , which is to say outside of it? (“Oh, my Amazon sales number broke into the hundreds! My editor will be thrilled!”) You won’t easily find the scored particularity of Keats’s sparrow there, or Marianne Moore’s toads, or Williams’ wheelbarrow, or Pound’s station in the metro. Worse yet, from what I can see, many writers and poets seem all-too-willing to play the game, creating fan pages and websites for their own brand. The writing community, such as it is, seems almost sick with desire for this ephemeral grace.
Every genius and every deluded poseur proudly displays her own granular meme, blogging, posting, or selling a book for $.99 on Kindle. In the World According to Amazon the plant growth point is that it is not possible to act essays scored be alienated because there is nothing outside of dissertation improvement it ! The Web is, in the worst possible sense, the night in which all cows are black. And yet, it is because of scored this outside that aesthetic controversies in explanatory thesis statement the arts, since the act essays scored romantic era and until very recently, have been so fierce. For example, in French painting around 1800 the rivalries between neo-classicists (school of David), archaists (Ingres), and romantic colorists (Delacroix) were vicious not because of a desire for online official recognition (they all hated the Salon) but because they all desired to define the act essays scored dominant tendency of the moment which in turn would determine the world of the future, on the outside . Ingres’s advocacy of the line and clear drafting was aesthetic, of course, but it was always an ethical and social aesthetics. The artist’s job was to describe virtue for his audience. Ingres’s paintings tried to say, “This is the most desirable world of the future.” On the other hand, Delacroix’s Rubensesque orgies of color smelled of “brimstone.” All of this took place in the communal context of the artist’s atelier , his studio, where students and advocates gathered to view new work, produce their own, and talk . For us, now, it seems to me, the doctoral only future being fought over is either technical or economic: in what form will the arts survive in ever-shifting markets . Act Essays! But all questions of virtue will be handled by technicians and personal statement conclusion school economists. As Andrei Codrescu wrote in his prescient book The Disappearance of the scored Outside : In the era of the Web, we might now add, yes, but it is a voluble silence. Inseparable from this social damage is a very personal damage. The Web is the largest, most sophisticated diversion machine in doctoral dissertation improvement human history. As entertainments always have, the Web diverts us from act essays scored, thinking about how empty we are.
As Pascal wrote, “The only thing that consoles us for our miseries is diversion, and yet this is the greatest of our miseries” (6). We fill ourselves with the narrative essay in past Web’s chatter and the Web’s busyness, but when our laptops and smart phones are taken from us we are thrown immediately back into our ancient human anxiety about being nothing. If we can’t text, and tweet, and act essays email, we discover ourselves to be ontologically empty , just as we’ve always been. And so, in a panic, back to that cold digital embrace we return. William Carlos Williams, just one more time: “It is difficult / to get the news from poems / yet men die miserably every day / for lack / of what is found there” (emphasis added, “Asphodel” 161-162). We are creatures of lack, manque , as Sartre put it grimly. The Web reassures us about the hole at dissertation improvement, the center of us by providing its endless chatter. The leveling effect of Amazon makes even the best intended artist or thinker a mere “content provider” for that hole whether she likes it or not.
Even this essay succumbs to that implacable dynamic, God help me. And yet, I think the situation is more or less as Marshall McLuhan saw it in the ’60s. Act Essays! On the one hand, as he acknowledged in his famous Playboy interview: As a man molded within the doctoral dissertation improvement literate Western tradition, I do not personally cheer the dissolution of that tradition through the electric involvement of all the senses: I don’t enjoy the destruction of neighborhoods by high-rises or revel in act essays the pain of identity quest. No one could be less enthusiastic about in past, these radical changes than myself. (267) But, against his own nature, he was forced to acknowledge: Even if I opposed them or thought them disastrous, I couldn’t stop them, so why waste my time lamenting? As Carlyle said of author Margaret Fuller after she remarked, ‘I accept the Universe’: ‘She’d better.’ I see no possibility of a worldwide Luddite rebellion that will smash all machinery to bits, so we might as well sit back and see what is happening and act essays what will happen to us in a cybernetic world.
Resenting a new technology will not halt its progress … No civilian can escape this environmental blitzkrieg, for there is, quite literally, no place to in past tense hide. Act Essays Scored! (264-65) McLuhan’s challenge is to discover how to relate to statement graduate these technologies without being mere unconscious “servomechanisms,” as he called those who mindlessly embrace inhumanly powerful gadgets. From my point of view, addressing that problem begins with an honest evaluation of what these mechanisms are, who we are, and what it is that we want. What art wants, as Marcuse articulated it a half century ago, is “images of a gratification that would dissolve the society which suppresses it” (63). Unfortunately, in scored the world of the happy servomechanism it is we, artists included, who are dissolved, digested, and totalized. Wallace Stevens once wrote that poetry was a “destructive force,” and that it can “kill a man.” On the heels of all the great art-isms of the mfa writing modernist period, whether surrealist, imagist, or fascist, this was a plausible claim. In the present, however, all such pronouncements are risible because they are spoken into a high-tech echo chamber. How happy we are when we post something and twenty-five people press a button claiming to “like” it.
For my original essay at Lapham’s , it has 527 “likes,” and a bonus 206 tweets. (Isn’t that awesome?) It’s enough to act essays scored make you want to do it again! And we do! But in the end all we hear is the reassuring sound of doctoral improvement our own voice. The enormous fact to scored be overcome is this: our rulers need spend very little time worrying about what artists are up to. They don’t need strategies for managing their disruptions (like the massive commercial co-opting of the counterculture in the ’60s, back when poetry was still a destructive force, and when poets [Ed Sanders, Robert Lowell] and improvement a novelist [Norman Mailer] could levitate the Pentagon). Literature on the Web comes managed from scored, its beginning. And this for a simple reason: it cannot sufficiently distinguish itself from the technology essay vast reaches of mere content. And I have no idea what to do about it except to continue doing what I do and making occasional little roaring noises from the tenebrous depth of my Central Illinois gulag.
One does not need to act essays be a Luddite to say such things. Doctoral Dissertation! It’s not as if I don’t email, don’t Facebook, don’t Google for quick information (like above when I couldn’t remember if the toad in the garden was in Moore or in Roethke), don’t blog, and have never had a fan site (I was hoodwinked by a wicked publicist!). But I am plenty Nietzschean enough not to act essays scored want to be human, all too human, and give aid and comfort to my jailer by saying that a prison house is a pleasure dome. Codrescu, Andrei. The Disappearance of the Outside: A Manifesto for Escape . Personal Conclusion Graduate School! St. Paul: Ruminator Books, 2001. Scored! Print. Keats, John. The Complete Poetical Works and Letters of John Keats . In Our Society! Ed. Horace Elisha Scudder.
Boston, 1899. eBook. The Cambridge Poets. Marcuse, Herbert. One Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society . 2nd ed. Scored! New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. Online Mfa Writing! Routledge Classics. McLuhan, Marshall. “Playboy Interview: ‘Marshall McLuhan - A Candid Conversation with the High Priest of Popcult and scored Metaphysician of Media.” The Essential McLuhan . Ed. Expository Thesis! Eric McLuhan and Frank Zingrone.
New York: Basic Books, 1995. 233-269. Scored! Print. Pascal, Blaise. Pensees . Trans. Roger Ariew. Indianapolis: Hacket Publishing, 2005. Print. Stevens, Wallace. The Collected Poems of technology essay Wallace Stevens . New York: Vintage 1990.
White, Curtis. “The Late Word.” Lapham’s Quarterly : Roundtable. Oct. 2011. Web. January 24, 2012. Williams, William Carlos. “Asphodel, That Greeny Flower.” Pictures from Brueghel and Other Poems . 5th ed. New York: New Directions, 1967.
Print. —. Kora in Hell: Improvisations . 1920. Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2009.