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The Secret Auden | by Edward Mendelson | The New York Review of
How to Write a Critique Essay? 7 steps. Guide for writing influential Critique Essays with easy to understand instructions and compelling tips. Being able to write a critique essay will serve a student well in their academic career and in some cases professionally. W.h. Auden? This article provides the necessary guidelines to theses and dissertations producing a well reasoned critique essay. A critique essay analyzes a work of art. It can be a book, painting, movie or music. It evaluates both the good and the bad, and works to reveal its meaning and purpose. The analysis done in a critique essay is meant to be unbiased so as to fairly represent and acknowledge both sides of the w.h., argument.
The focus of the essay is on essays my role apj abdul kalam evaluating the w.h., work impartially and cities essay, not forming a personal opinion. It is for this reason that the w.h. auden, first person is statement essay not used in writing this essay. In order to critique an art form, the writer must first experience it. If it is a book, it should be read and w.h. auden essays, if it is a movie, it should be watched. In order to evaluate the piece of work, this first step must be taken to understand it. Dental Essay? The way the w.h. essays, writer will respond to it and the emotions it will trigger should be carefully noted. If necessary, carry along a notebook and jot down notes of your impressions.
Also try to get the experience more than just once. You may find your impression altered the second time around. The writer should decide on which aspect of the art work to focus on. As it will be an in statement depth analysis of the w.h. auden essays, topic then the writer should consider examining just a single aspect of the work rather than taking a broad view that may not be adequately covered in a single essay. For instance rather than focusing on all aspects of a song, the theses university, writer can critique the auden, music video to the song. Using the notes you have collected, you can create an outline. This will allow you to organize the notes in a coherent manner. Most critique essays follow the standard format of an introduction, three-paragraph body and festival, a conclusion.
Start by identifying the piece and its creator. Give a bit of background on the creator especially if the readers may not be aware as to who he or she is. Mention whether the creator is a pro in their field or is just starting out. Also talk about the piece, is it part of a collection or single? If it is part of a collection, what is the general opinion on the other pieces and the collection as a whole?
Has it been reported as being controversial? Is this the first viewing or part of an w.h., ongoing tour? Explain in a brief summary what it is essays model kalam about and essays, what the and dissertations, creator expected to convey. Give your hypothesis about the work and the areas you will cover in trying to prove your suppositions. This brief summary gives the reader an idea of what the essay is going to cover. It should be written in an interesting manner so as to entice the essays, reader into continuing on to the body of the essay. Three paragraphs is the standard number but if the an outline essay, writer feels he or she has more to say then they can add on. This part of the essay is auden not about theses, providing a summary of the work but rather an analysis. Auden Essays? The focus is to see whether the intended outcome of the creator was met. Did the impression the writer receive, what the creator intended? Provide clear evidence of your argument and give unbiased reflections.
Do not get personal and do not provide unsubstantiated commentary. Give reason as to how the creator managed to create the intended impression and in what ways he or she failed. The writer may however make reference to other people's opinions and impressions of the work. This can help to support the writers view or provide a contrast. The writer should however be able to give reason as to why his or her hypothesis is stronger than any other opinion. He or she should use quality reasoning when making their case.
The writer may make comparisons with similar bodies of work, make reference to statistics and provide anecdotes to fill out the tale theme, main body. These additional references should help to support the writers' argument. Making use of other essays on the same work or even information on the creator of the work is also permissible. It can give a brief summary of what has been covered in the main body and it should clearly show how the w.h. auden, points raise clearly support the hypothesis put forward in the introduction. It should bring to a sound end the essay.
Remember to state whether you agree with the creator. Be sure to mention the title of the work and its creator in the conclusion. Festival Essay? This is to ensure that the essay is w.h. essays written in grammatically correct language and the spelling of words is in order. It also ensures the flow of the essay makes sense and all parts of the pass match dental, essay come together properly. Be sure to read through the entire essay to ensure that the w.h., flow of argument makes sense. Perform a rewrite if necessary to correct any anomaly. Ensure each paragraph makes the point it is supposed to making an outline clearly.
Write the essay in the third person and ensure that every impression is backed up with clear evidence. W.h. Auden? Make good use of the notes you compiled while observing or experiencing the art work. This is what you will use in creating an and dissertations, outline and will remind you of your firsthand impressions of the work. Remember that by offering a critique essay, a writer is giving an impression that he or she is an expert in the field written about. It would be advisable that novices should avoid formulating such an essay as it may lead to their own criticism. Also be sure of the sources of your evidence.
The essay may come under scrutiny and if there is no evidence to support the comments, the reputation of the publisher and the author will suffer. Be careful of any controversial stand you take in your critique. It is the kind of thing to attract bad publicity and even legal repercussions. Be sure that the evidence on which you base your conclusions is legitimate. W.h.? If you are going to make reference to other critics' opinions on the body of work, be sure that you chose reputable experts.
Repeating the making, opinion of someone with no credibility could affect your own. W.h.? Any critique done often attracts its own criticism, so the writer should be ready for either a backlash or support depending on public opinion and how the essay came out. Check if the publisher of the essay follows certain formatting rules. For instance, those who follow APA style, have to adhere to a strict format for theme, their critique essay. Be sure to submit your work as per the requisite formatting rules. May I know your favorite Critique Essay Topic? I am feeling excited to read and reply your valuable comments.
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The Secret Auden | by Edward Mendelson | The New York Review of
ncftp resume ftp The purpose of ncftp is to provide a powerful and flexible interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol . It is intended to replace the w.h. stock ftp program that comes with the system. Although the dental essay program appears to be rather spartan, you'll find that ncftp has a wealth of valuable performance and usage features. The program was designed with an emphasis on usability, and it does as much as it can for you automatically so you can do what you expect to do with a file transfer program, which is transfer files between two interconnected systems. Some of the cooler features include progress meters, filename completion, command-line editing, background processing, auto-resume downloads, bookmarking, cached directory listings, host redialing, working with firewalls and proxies, downloading entire directory trees, etc., etc. The ncftp distribution comes with the useful utility programs ncftpget (1) and ncftpput (1) which were designed to auden, do command-line FTP. Msu Personal Statement! In particular, they are very handy for shell scripts.
This version of ncftp no longer does command-line FTP, since the main ncftp program is more of w.h. auden, a browser-type program. The program allows you to specify a host or directory URL on the command line. This is a synonym for running ncftp and then using the open command. A few command-line flags are allowed with this mode: Upon running the program you are presented a command prompt where you type commands to the program's shell. Pongal! Usually you will want to open a remote filesystem to auden, transfer files to and from your local machine's filesystem. To do that, you need to know the symbolic name of the remote system, or its Internet Protocol (IP) address.
For example, a symbolic name might be ``typhoon.unl.edu,'' and its IP address could be ``18.104.22.168.'' To open a connection to that system, you use the program's open command: Both of these try to open the machine called typhoon at and dissertations university, the University of Nebraska . Using the symbolic name is the auden preferred way, because IP addresses may change without notice, while the symbolic names usually stay the same. When you open a remote filesystem, you need to have permission. The FTP Protocol 's authentication system is an outline for your, very similar to that of logging in to your account. W.h.! You have to give an account name, and its password for access to that account's files. However, most remote systems that have anything you might be interested in don't require an account name for use. You can often get anonymous access to a remote filesystem and exchange files that have been made publicly accessible. The program attempts to get anonymous permission to making an outline, a remote system by default. What actually happens is that the program tries to use ``anonymous'' as the account name, and when prompted for a password, uses your E-mail address as a courtesy to the remote system's maintainer.
You can have the program try to w.h. essays, use a specific account also. That will be explained later. After the open command completes successfully, you are connected to model, the remote system and logged in. W.h. Essays! You should now see the command prompt change to reflect the name of the current remote directory. Pongal! To see what's in the current remote directory, you can use the program's ls and dir commands. The former is terse, preferring more remote files in less screen space, and w.h. essays the latter is theses and dissertations, more verbose, giving detailed information about each item in the directory. You can use the w.h. auden program's cd command to theses and dissertations, move to other directories on the remote system. The cd command behaves very much like the command of the same name in the Bourne and auden Korn shell. The purpose of the program is to exchange data with other systems.
You can use the program's get command to copy a file from the remote system to your local system: The program will display the progress of the transfer on the screen, so you can tell how much needs to tale of two cities, be done before the transfer finishes. When the transfer does finish, then you can enter more commands to essays, the program's command shell. You can use the program's put command to copy a file from your system to the remote system: When you are finished using the remote system, you can open another one or use the quit. Before quitting, you may want to pass essay, save the current FTP session's settings for later.
You can use the bookmark command to save an entry into your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file. When you use the bookmark command, you also specify a bookmark name, so the next time instead of opening the full hostname you can use the name of the bookmark. A bookmark acts just like one for your web browser, so it saves the auden essays remote directory you were in, the account name you used, etc., and essays my role model apj abdul kalam other information it learned so that the next time you use the essays bookmark it should require as little effort from you as possible. to change to the last directory you were in. Acts like the an outline for your essay ``/bin/chmod'' UNIX command, only for remote files. Essays! However, this is not a standard command, so remote FTP servers may not support it. Disconnects you from the remote server.
The program does this for you automatically when needed, so you can simply open other sites or quit the program without worrying about closing the connection by hand. This command is mostly for internal testing. University! You could type to turn debugging mode on. Then you could see all messages between the program and the remote server, and things that are only printed in debugging mode. However, this information is w.h., also available in the $HOME/.ncftp/trace file, which is festival, created each time you run ncftp . If you need to report a bug, send a trace file if you can. W.h.! Prints a detailed directory listing. It tries to behave like UNIX 's ``/bin/ls -l'' command.
If the remote server seems to be a UNIX host, you can also use the same flags you would with ls , for instance would try to theses university, act like. Downloads into essays a temporary file for essay, editing on the local host, then uploads the changed file back to the remote host. Copies files from the current working directory on the remote host to your machine's current working directory. Auden! To place a copy of msu personal essay, ``README'' and ``README.too'' in auden essays, your local directory, you could try: get README README.too. You could also accomplish that by using a wildcard expression, such as: This command is similar to the behavior of other FTP programs' mget command. Festival Essay! To retrieve a remote file but give it a different name on your host, you can use the ``-z'' flag. Auden! This example shows how to download a file called ReadMe.txt but name it locally as README : The program tries to ``resume'' downloads by default. This means that if the remote FTP server lost the connection and was only able to send 490 kilobytes of essays my role apj abdul kalam, a 500 kilobyte file, you could reconnect to the FTP server and do another get on w.h. auden the same file name and it would get the essays apj abdul kalam last 10 kilobytes, instead of retrieving the entire file again. There are some occasions where you may not want that behavior. To turn it off you can use the ``-f'' flag. There are also times where you want to append to an existing file.
You can do this by using the essays ``-A'' flag, for example. would append to a file named ``log.11'' if it existed locally. Another thing you can do is delete a remote file after you download it. This can be useful when a remote host expects a file to be removed when it has been retrieved. Use the tale theme double-D flag, such as ``get -DD'' to do this. The get command lets you retrieve entire directory trees, too. Although it may not work with some remote systems, you can try ``get -R'' with a directory to w.h., download the directory and its contents. Cities Essay! When using the essays ``-R'' flag, you can also use the essay ``-T'' flag to disable automatic on-the-fly TAR mode for downloading whole directory trees. The program uses TAR whenever possible since this usually preserves symbolic links and file permissions.
TAR mode can also result in faster transfers for w.h. auden essays, directories containing many small files, since a single data connection can be used rather than an FTP data connection for each small file. The downside to using TAR is that it forces downloading of the whole directory, even if you had previously downloaded a portion of it earlier, so you may want to use this option if you want to resume downloading of making essay, a directory. Views the list of currently executing NcFTP background tasks. This actually just runs ncftpbatch -l for you. The lcd command is the first of auden essays, a few ``l'' commands that work with the local host. This changes the current working directory on of two theme the local host. If you want to download files into a different local directory, you could use lcd to change to that directory and then do your downloads. Runs ``/bin/chmod'' on the local host. W.h. Auden Essays! Another local command that comes in handy is the lls command, which runs ``/bin/ls'' on and dissertations university the local host and displays the results in the program's window. You can use the same flags with lls as you would in your command shell, so you can do things like: Runs ``/bin/mkdir'' on the local host. lookup.
The program also has a built-in interface to the name service via the lookup command. This means you can lookup entries for remote hosts, like: There is also a more detailed option, enabled with ``-v,'' i.e.: You can also give IP addresses, so this would work too: Views a local file one page at w.h. auden essays, a time, with your preferred $PAGER program. Prints the current local directory. And Dissertations! Use this command when you forget where you are on your local machine. Runs ``/bin/mv'' on w.h. essays the local host. University! Runs ``/bin/rm'' on the local host. Runs ``/bin/rmdir'' on auden essays the local host. And Dissertations University! Prints a directory listing from the remote system.
It tries to behave like UNIX 's ``/bin/ls -CF'' command. If the remote server seems to be a UNIX host, you can also use the same flags you would with ls , for instance would try to act like. ncftp has a powerful built-in system for dealing with directory listings. It tries to cache each one, so if you list the same directory, odds are it will display instantly. Auden! Behind the scenes, ncftp always tries a long listing, and my role apj abdul then reformats it as it needs to. So even if your first listing of a directory was a regular ``ls'' which displayed the files in columns, your next listing could be ``ls -lrt'' and ncftp would still use the cached directory listing to quickly display the information for w.h. auden, you!
Creates a new directory on the remote host. For many public archives, you won't have the proper access permissions to do that. Establishes an FTP control connection to a remote host. By default, ncftp logs in anonymously to the remote host. Theses And Dissertations University! You may want to use a specific user account when you log in, so you can use the ``-u'' flag to specify which user. This example shows how to w.h. auden essays, open the and dissertations university host ``bowser.nintendo.co.jp'' using the username ``mario:'' Here is a list of flags you can use with the open command: would append to a file named ``log11.txt'' if it existed on the remote server. Another thing you can do is auden essays, delete a local file after you upload it. Use the double-D flag, such as ``put -DD'' to do this. The put command lets you send entire directory trees, too.
It should work on all remote systems, so you can try ``put -R'' with a directory to theses, upload the directory and its contents. Prints the current remote working directory. A portion of the pathname is also displayed in the shell's prompt. Of course, when you finish using the program, type quit to end the program (You could also use bye , exit , or ^D ). W.h. Auden! This can be used to send a direct FTP Protocol command to the remote server. Generally this isn't too useful to the average user. If you need to change the dental essay name of a remote file, you can use the rename command, like: Sends a help request to the remote server. The list of FTP Protocol commands is often printed, and auden essays sometimes some other information that is actually useful, like how to reach the site administrator. Depending on the remote server, you may be able to give a parameter to the server also, like: One server responded: If you need to delete a remote file you can try the rm command. Much of the time this won't work because you won't have the proper access permissions. This command doesn't accept any flags, so you can't nuke a whole tree by essay, using ``-rf'' flags like you can on UNIX . Similarly, the rmdir command removes a directory.
Depending on the remote server, you may be able to remove a non-empty directory, so be careful. This lets you configure some program variables, which are saved between runs in w.h., the $HOME/.ncftp/prefs file. The basic syntax is: For example, to essays model apj abdul kalam, change the value you use for the anonymous password, you might do: See the next section for a list of w.h. auden, things you change. This lets you display program variables. You can do ``show all'' to display all of pass match essay, them, or give a variable name to just display that one, such as: One obscure command you may have to use someday is site . The FTP Protocol allows for ``site specific'' commands. These ``site'' commands vary of course, such as: Actually, ncftp 's chmod command really does the above.
Try doing one of w.h. essays, these to essays my role model kalam, see what the remote server supports, if any: site help You may need to change transfer types during the course of a session with a server. You can use the w.h. auden type command to do this. Msu Personal! Try one of auden, these: The ascii command is equivalent to ``type a'', and the binary command is equivalent to ``type i'' and essay ``type b''. W.h. Essays! Sets the process' umask on the remote server, if it has any concept of a umask, i.e.: However, this is not a standard command, so remote FTP servers may not support it. This command dumps some information about the particular edition of the program you are using, and how it was installed on your system. When a host is busy or unavailable, the program waits this number of seconds before trying again. Pongal Festival! The smallest you can set this is to 10 seconds -- so if you were planning on w.h. auden being inconsiderate, think again. If you set this variable to yes , the program will save passwords along with the bookmarks you save.
While this makes non-anonymous logins more convenient, this can be very dangerous since your account information is now sitting in the $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file. The passwords aren't in clear text, but it is still trivial to decode them if someone wants to make a modest effort. If set to yes and operating from within an xterm window, the program will change the model apj abdul kalam window's titlebar accordingly. W.h. Essays! If your operating system supports TCP Large Windows , you can try setting this variable to essay, the number of bytes to set the TCP/IP socket buffer to. This option won't be of much use unless the remote server also supports large window sizes and is pre-configured with them enabled. This timer controls how long to wait for data blocks to w.h., complete. Don't set this too low or else your transfers will timeout without completing. You may find that your network administrator has placed a firewall between your machine and the Internet, and tale of two essay that you cannot reach external hosts. The answer may be as simple as setting ncftp to auden, use passive mode only, which you can do from of two cities, a ncftp command prompt like this: The reason for this is essays, because many firewalls do not allow incoming connections to the site, but do allow users to establish outgoing connections.
A passive data connection is established by the client to festival, the server, whereas the default is for the server to auden, establish the connection to and dissertations, the client, which firewalls may object to. Of course, you now may have problems with sites whose primitive FTP servers do not support passive mode. Otherwise, if you know you need to have ncftp communicate directly with a firewall or proxy, you can try editing the separate $HOME/.ncftp/firewall configuration file. This file is created automatically the first time you run the program, and contains all the information you need to get the program to work in this setup. The basics of w.h. auden essays, this process are configuring a firewall (proxy) host to go through, a user account and for your password for authentication on the firewall, and which type of auden essays, firewall method to use. You can also setup an exclusion list, so that ncftp does not use the firewall for hosts on the local network. $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks Saves bookmark and host information. Pongal Festival Essay! $HOME/.ncftp/firewall Firewall access configuration file. $HOME/.ncftp/prefs Program preferences. W.h. Auden! $HOME/.ncftp/trace Debugging output for entire program run. $HOME/.ncftp/v3init Used to tell if this version of the program has run before. $HOME/.ncftp/spool/ Directory where background jobs are stored in theses and dissertations university, the form of spool configuration files. W.h. Essays! $HOME/.ncftp/spool/log Information for background data transfer processes. PATH User's search path, used to msu personal, find the essays ncftpbatch program, pager, and some other system utilities. Msu Personal! PAGER Program to use to view text files one page at a time. TERM If the program was compiled with support for GNU Readline it will need to know how to manipulate the w.h. essays terminal correctly for line-editing, etc. The pager program will also take advantage of this setting.
HOME By default, the match program writes its configuration data in w.h. auden, a .ncftp subdirectory of the HOME directory. NCFTPDIR If set, the program will use this directory instead of $HOME/.ncftp . Statement! This variable is optional except for those users whose home directory is the essays root directory. COLUMNS Both the built-in ls command and making essay the external ls command need this to determine how many screen columns the terminal has. There are no such sites named bowser.nintendo.co.jp or sphygmomanometer.unl.edu . Auto-resume should check the file timestamps instead of relying upon w.h. essays, just the file sizes, but it is difficult to do this reliably within FTP. Directory caching and recursive downloads depend on UNIX -like behavior of the remote host. Mike Gleason, NcFTP Software. Thanks to pass, everyone who uses the program. Your support is what drives me to improve the program! I thank Dale Botkin and Tim Russell at my former ISP, Probe Technology . Ideas and some code contributed by my partner, Phil Dietz. Thanks to Brad Mittelstedt and Chris Tjon, for driving and w.h. essays refining the development of the backbone of this project, LibNcFTP . I'd like to thank my former system administrators, most notably Charles Daniel, for making testing on a variety of platforms possible, letting me have some extra disk space, and for maintaining the UNL FTP site. For testing versions 1 and 2 above and beyond the call of essays my role apj abdul kalam, duty, I am especially grateful to: Phil Dietz, Kok Hon Yin, and Andrey A. Chernov (email@example.com).
Thanks to Tim MacKenzie (firstname.lastname@example.org) for essays, the original filename completion code for version 2.3.0 and 2.4.2. Thanks to DaviD W. Sanderson (email@example.com), for helping me out with the man page. Thanks to those of you at UNL who appreciate my work. Thanks to Red Hat Software for honoring my licensing agreement, but more importantly, thanks for making for your, providing a solid and affordable development platform. To the users, for not being able to respond personally to most of your inquiries.
To Phil, for things not being the way they should be.
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Symphony of Prosperity , Akin Gallery, Boston, MA. Anything But Paper , Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston, MA. Auden! ARTcetera #39;92, AIDS Action Committee, International Place, Boston. Autopia, Akin Gallery, Boston, MA. Contemporary Uses of festival essay, Wax and Encaustic , Palo Alto Cultural Center, Palo Alto, CA. Claflin Collection , Newton Free Library, Newton, MA.
The Object: Found, Observed, Imagined , Curator: Charles Guiliano, Fitchburg Art Museum, Fitchburg, MA. W.h.! Boston 1990: The Sixth Triennial Exhibition , Fuller Museum of Art, Brockton, MA. ARTcetera #39;90, AIDS Action Committee, International Place, Boston. Nature Reassembled , Curator: G.A. Scattergood-Moore, Newton Arts Center, Newton, MA. Seventh Annual Salon Show , Clark Gallery, Lincoln, M A. Likeness: A Selection of Portraits, Curator: Francine Koslow, Art Institute of match dental, Boston, Boston, Artists in w.h. auden essays, Residence , Bank of theses university, Boston Gallery, Boston, MA. Talent 87 , Allan Stone Gallery, New York, NY. W.h.! Lands of Enchantment , Curator: Bonnie Grad, The Trustman Art Gallery, Simmons College, Boston, MA I.
Inaugural , Akin Gallery, Boston, MA. The Subject is Water , Curators: Rachel Rosenfeld Lafo Lisa Weber Greenberg, Newport Art Museum, Newport, RI. Boston Baroque: Elements of making an outline, Drama in Contemporary Art , Curator: Joan Bragen, Decordova Museum at w.h. auden the Vault Gallery, Boston, MA. And Dissertations! New Talent , Allan Stone Gallery, New York, NY Works on w.h. Paper , Curator: Linda Shearer, Berkshire Art Association, Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, MA. Msu Personal Essay! Third Annual Local Color, A Second Look , Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA. Claflin School Artists , Newton Arts Center, Newton, MA. Jungle Fever , Curator: Amy Jo Rosen, The Harcus Gallery, Boston, MA. 14th Boston Arts Festival Open Competition , Boston, MA. Local Color , Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA. Art For Your Collection XXII , Museum of Art, RISD, Providence, RI.
A Show of Fans , Curator: Pam Perry, Society of Arts and Crafts, Boston, MA. W.h.! Symbolism: Animal as Metaphor , Clark Gallery, Lincoln, MA. Contemporary New England Still Life , DeCordova Museum, Lincoln, MA and Newport Art Museum, Newport, RI. People , Curator: David Brown, Newton Arts Center, Newton, MA. Msu Personal Statement Essay! Open Show , Boston Visual Artists Union, Boston, MA. First Annual Prize Competition 1983 , Curator: Alice Neel, Provincetown Art Association and Museum, Provincetown, MA. Terrance Gallery National Art Show , Palanville, NY. Potsdam Prints 1980 , Potsdam, NY. Water Works , University of North Dakota, Curator: Laurel Reuter, Traveling Invitational, ND. Black Hills State College , Spearfish, SD. Auden Essays! Alumni Show , Hughes Fine Arts Center, Grand Forks, ND.
Faculty Biennial , University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND. 5th Annual All North Dakota Art Exhibition , Minot, ND. Making An Outline For Your Essay! 11th Biennial National Art Exhibition, 2nd Crossing Gallery , Valley City, ND. Auden Essays! 20th Red River Annual, Plains Art Museum, Fargo, North Dakota Artists , Curator: Mildred Constantine, UND, Grand Forks, ND. My Role! Third College of St. Mary: Print, Drawing, Painting Third College of St. Mary, Omaha, NE. Atlantic Mutual Companies. W.h. Essays! DeCordova Museum Corporate Program. Harcourt General Inc.
Mutual Funds Service Company. Massachusetts Cultural Council as administered by the Cambridge Arts Council. George A and Eliza Gardner Howard Foundation, finalist. Pongal Festival! AICA Award, Boston Chapter, Best Gallery Show of w.h. auden essays, a Mid-Career Artist. Pass Match! AICA Award, Boston Chapter, Best Group SHow in an Institutional/University Gallery. Newton Cultural Council, funded by Massachusetts Cultural Council. A.R.T. (Artists#39; Resource Trust) Fund, Berkshire Taconic Community Foundation. Newton Cultural Council, funded by Massachusetts Cultural Council. Massachusetts Cultural Council as administered by the Newton Arts Lottery. Aqua Wynwood, Miami FL (represented by w.h. auden Allston Skirt Gallery) Pool Art Fair, Miami FL (organized by Heide Hartry) Aqua Art Miami, Miami FL (represented by Allston Skirt Gallery) Agua Art Miami, Miami FL (represented by pongal Allston Skirt Gallery) AFFAIR@ the w.h. essays Jupiter Hotel Portland, OR (represented by Allston Skirt Gallery) NADA Miami, FL (represented by Allston Skirt Gallery) NADA Miami, FL (represented by dental Allston Skirt Gallery) “Artists Reassemble Nature,” THE BOSTON SUNDAY GLOBE, p. West 13, October 1, 1989.
Day, Meredith Fife. “Seven Artists in w.h. auden, Lincoln,” CENTURY NEWSPAPERS, July 17, 1986. Brush with success, BOSTON MAGAZINE, p. 195, ill., Feb. 2003. Kalam! Move it Along, Stuff Magazine, May 22-June 4, 2012, ill. p. 24. Roberta Paul, Amy-Jo Spitalier, Paris, France, 1997 Essay. Auden Essays! Essay, “Roberta Paul,” Hunt-Cavanagh Gallery, Providence College, RI,1991 Kennedy, Louise. Match Dental Essay! How sweet it is. W.h.! or is of two theme essay it? , THE BOSTON GLOBE, p. W.h. Auden Essays! N, N8., February 13, 2005.
Grad, Bonnie, Books, Sylvia Moore 1987. “Women and pass match dental essay, Landscape: Interpreting Nature, pp. 97-98, ill., p. W.h. Essays! 106, 1987. Hand, Gail Stewart Roberta Paul. North Dakota Museum of Art,” GRAND FORKS HERALD, Section D cover, ill., December 1, 1985. Tale Essay! Hill, Shawn Roberta Paul:Time and Tiers, Art New England, p. 27, ill., Feb./March 2003. Lynch, Lisa Shame, Q A Women’s Studies Research Center at w.h. auden essays Brandeis University, Waltham, MA. McQuaid, Cate Urban Safari, Roberta Paul: Move Me, THE BOSTON GLOBE, g section May 10, 2012 ill. p. 4. Roberta Paul gets personal, THE BOSTON GLOBE, p.6- 7,ill.,February 19,1998 “Balancing artifice and pass match essay, innocence, Family Matters,” Arts Reviews, Boston Globe, June 7, 2007.
Metzger, Andy Art” and about in the urban wilds, WickedLocal, Wednesday, May 23, 2012 ill. Auden Essays! p. 11. Millis, Christopher Pretty Sweet The DeCordova Takes a Serious Look t the Sentimental in Art, The Boston Phoenix, February 18, 2005 p. 22. An Outline! Painter#39;s abstract focus.. THE BOSTON GLOBE, p.E3, May 13, 1999. Monsebrotten, Nancy “Painters on w.h. Pots. Theses! ” CERAMIC MONTHLY, p. 84, ill., March 1984. Mulski, Susan Stories at w.h. auden Allston Skirt Gallery, ART NEW ENGLAND, p. 43, August/September1999. Norden, Linda Catalogue, roberta paul / time tiers, 2002. Essays My Role Model Apj Abdul! Perry, Pam “New Artist, New Work,” ART NEW ENGLAND, p. 18, ill., May 1984. Raynor, Vivien Show With Images of Food, but Not for the Hungry, THE NEW YORK TIMES,SUNDAY (Westchester), p. 20, April 26, 1998. Reuter, Laurel “Watercolor Has Endured Test of Time,” GRAND FORKS HERALD, p. 3, March 29, 1980. Rubin, Marlene “The Field Gallery,” THE VINEYARD GRAPEVINE, p. 100, July 24, 1984.
Schlegel, Patty “Paul’s Exhibition Brings Summer Memories,” SPECTRUM, p. 8, October 22, 1985. Shadi, Sheybani Full Bellies vs. Fat Hips-Obsession (food) at Art Center, WOMEN#39;S NEWS, p.19, 1998. Spotlight THE GRAND FORKS HERALD, cover ill., May 16, 1981. W.h. Essays! Stapen, Nancy Roberta Paul#39;s works evoke patterns of women#39;s lives, THE BOSTON GLOBE, pp. Essay! 73,79, ill., June 17, 1993. Auden! “Autopia,” Nancy Stapen, BOSTON GLOBE, February 27. “Art Gallery Turns to Animal World,” THE BOSTON HERALD, p. Theses University! 19, February 24, 1985.
Local Color’ show gives fine glimpses,” THE BOSTON HERALD, July 18, 1985. “Jungle Fever Show Mirrors Modern Artists’ Concerns,” THE BOSTON HERALD, September 22, 1985. Strong, Madeline “Recent, Chaos of auden, Color,” THE DAKOTA STUDENT, P.6, ill., May 28, 1981. Pass Match Essay! Taylor, Robert “Critics’ Choice,” THE BOSTON GLOBE,p.61, September 5, 1986 “DeCordova Presents a Variety of Still Life,” THE BOSTON GLOBE, p. 77, October 7, 1984. Temin, Christine How sweet it is. or is auden essays it? THE BOSTON GLOBE, p. University! N, N8, February 13, 2005. Perspectives, THE BOSTON GLOBE, p. F3, ill., November 8, 2000. Artists share feelings about their dearly departed, THE BOSTON GLOBE,p. W.h.! D11, January 8, 1991. “Eye on the Beholder: What Artists Look At,” THE BOSTON SUNDAY GLOBE, pp.
A1, A2, August 18, 1991. “In Brockton, a slice of pongal festival essay, Boston’s art scene,” THE BOSTON SUNDAY GLOBE, pp. 33, 40, October 19, 1990. “A Wide Spectrum of w.h. essays, Campus Art Galleries,” THE BOSTON GLOBE, “Critics Tip: Talent to Watch,” THE BOSTON GLOBE Calendar Section, p35, September 21, 1989. “Chaos Holds Show Together,” THE BOSTON GLOBE, pp. 86, 90, ill., September 28, 1986. Tale Of Two Cities Theme! Calendar,Super Fall Edition, September 11, 1986.
Perspective, THE BOSTON GLOBE, ill, September 25, 1986. “The New Portraiture,” THE BOSTON GLOBE, Arts and auden, Films, January 19, 1986. My Role Apj Abdul Kalam! “Outlining the auden essays Truth,” THE BOSTON GLOBE, Calendar Section, p.12, October 31,1986. Msu Personal Statement! Jungle Fever Show Makes Fun Adventure, THE BOSTON GLOBE, September 26,1985. Wildman, David Pleasing plaster and pensive collages, THE BOSON SUNDAY GLOBE, City Weekly, ill., p.12, 2000. Capasso, Nick Novina, Alexandra Catalogue , pretty sweet: the w.h. auden essays sentimental image in for your, contemporary art DeCordova Museum and Sculpture Park, Lincoln, Ma. W.h. Auden Essays! Dawson, Anne Tonelli, Laura Catalogue , Beyond Recognition, Akus Gallery, Montserrat College of Art Gallery The Gallery of match, Contemporary Art, December 8, 1996- January 23, 1997. Koslow Miller, Francine Catalogue , “ROBERTA PAUL, Creation : Science,” 2007. W.h.! Lafo, Rachel Lisa Weber Greenberg Catalogue , “Contemporary New England Still Life,” DeCordova Museum, Lincoln, MA,1984. O#39;brien, Barbara catalogue Call Response, 2003. Theses University! Schiff, Karen “Roberta Paul @ Allston Skirt,” Big Red and Shiny, (on-line Magazine), 2007. Smith, Tiffany Newton Living, The Holiday Issue, Artistic Migration, Pages 26-27, Dec. 2011/Jan 2012.
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Dhyana or Meditation In Hindu Tradition. This essays explores the w.h. auden essays practice of dhyana or meditation in Hinduism, from a historical perspective, based on the Hindu scriptures such as the Veda Samhitas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavadgita and the Tantra shastras, with a brief analysis of meditation practices of Jainism and Buddhism. The purpose of meditation or dhyana is to msu personal essay become consciously aware of or investigate into w.h. essays, one's own mind and body to for your essay know oneself. It is essentially an w.h. essays exclusive as well as an of two theme essay inclusive process, in which one withdraws one's mind and senses from the distractions of the world and contemplates upon a chosen object or idea with concentration. It is w.h., focused thinking with or without the exercise of individual will, in which the mind and the body has to theme essay be brought together to w.h. auden essays function as one harmonious whole. With the help of meditation we can overcome our mental blocks, negative thinking, debilitating fears, stress and anxiety by knowing their cause and dealing with them. In dhyana we gain insightful awareness whereby we can control over our responses and reactions. Theses And Dissertations University. Through its regular practice, we come to understand the w.h. auden nature of things, the impermanence of our corporeal existence, the fluctuations of our minds, the source of our own suffering and its possible resolution. The difference between meditation and contemplation is mostly academic.
According to, some meditation is an insightful observation and contemplation a concentrated reflection, with detachment being the common factor between the tale cities two. In this essay both the words are used interchangeably to convey the same meaning as dhayna. Dhyana is auden essays, a Sanskrit word. Dhi means receptacle or the mind and yana means moving or going. Dhyana means journey or movement of the my role model apj abdul kalam mind. It is a mental activity of the mind (dhi). In Hindu philosophy, the mind (manas) is viewed as a receptacle (dhi) into which thoughts pour back and forth from the universal pool of w.h. auden, thought forms. According to Hindu tradition, the human mind has the creative potency of God. You become what you think. You are a sum total of your thoughts and desires, not only of this life but also of festival essay, your past lives. Auden Essays. What you think and desire grows upon you, becomes part of your latent impressions (samskaras) and influence the course of your life here and here after.
These samskaras determine the future course of your lives as they accompany you to the next world. All your mental actions are part of your karma as much as any physical action. Even the making for your animals have the ability to evolve into higher being through their mental focus 1 . Meditation is observing the inward and outward movement of thoughts that are coming and going out of the mind, with silence (maunam), stability (dhiram) and detachment (vairagyam). According to Hindu theories of auden essays, creation, all the beings and worlds emanated from God (mentioned as Brahma in some scriptures and Brahman in others) through meditation only. Its mysteries and its dimensions can be comprehended in transcendental states of self-absorption which is possible through meditation only.
Since each individual is a carbon copy of the universe, by understanding ourselves we can understand the of two cities manifest universe. Thus our ancient rishis practiced meditation and contemplation to discover the auden essays truths concerning themselves and the world around them. In their deep meditative states they envisioned the Vedic wisdom and Universal Self. Since the knowledge poured forth into their receptive and stabilized minds from the universal consciousness, on its own, without any egoistic intention or selfishness on their part, it is my role model kalam, considered as not man made (apaurusheya), but divine and auden truthful (pramana). All thoughts and knowledge exist in the universe. We do not create thoughts, although we erroneously believe so, just as we are not the real doers of our actions, as declared in the Bhagavadgita, but mere instruments in the hands of God. We can only receive them and make meaning out of them according to the flow of making for your essay, our inclinations, intentions, intellect and attitudes. The most exalted spiritual truths are revealed to us in our moments of reverential silence, when our minds are focused, the senses and the self-sense are asleep and the desires are extinguished. The six Hindu schools of philosophy are so called darshanas (visions) because they are products of such receptive process in which knowledge was envisioned (darsanam) in the pit of the human mind that was untainted by the impurities of worldly life. While the followers of respective schools may argue or quarrel about the merits and demerits of their respective systems of philosophy, from a spiritual perspective, we hold them to be different standpoints of the same universal knowledge revealed to man at w.h. auden essays different points of time in history, and like any other standpoint they represent a particular view of the reality and do not wholly represent the universal reality itself, which is well rounded, eternal, infinite and absolute in itself without divisions, grades and contradictions.
The Vedic seers did not use the word dhyana in the early Vedic theology. But through their own personal experience, they were aware of the for your essay importance of the auden essays mind and its ability to manifest things. They viewed creation as the mental manifestation of the making an outline for your essay Isvara or Brahman, the universal Self and they believe through austerities and penances man could acquire similar potencies. W.h.. The creation of an alternate heaven(trisanku) by sage Viswamitra is a case in point. According to Jenine Miller, a British scholar, the Vedic prayer was a form of theme, dhyana in which the two sense functions, vision and sound, seership and singing are intimately connected. 2. The Vedic concept of dhayna or meditation seems to have evolved gradually with the emergence of Upanishadic thought and the idea that man personified the w.h. auden essays entire universe within himself and by himself and that hidden deep within him was an eternal principle that was Universal Self in its individual aspect. Essays Kalam. Either man (purusha) was a projection of the universe in its own mode or the universe was a projection of the individual self (purusha) in its own form.
Both views enjoyed patronage of scholarly minds. If the former was true, our existence was ephemeral and part of a much larger dream, and If the latter was true, then the universe might be an w.h. auden essays illusion. In either case the world seemed to theses university be unreal or illusory, a view that caught the attention of w.h. essays, Hindu scholars for centuries and found its way into the monistic (advauta) philosophy of Shankara. Miller proposed the view that in the beginning the Vedic seers held Brahman to theses be a meditative state, not a universal entity. She suggested that the w.h. essays Vedic seers practiced three different types of meditation and were familiar with three states of transcendental reality, which they identified with Brahman. In addition they were also familiar with the forth state although it was not explicitly mentioned in the early Vedic hymns. They are: Mantric meditation or meditation on making an outline essay the Vedic mantras with concentration, Visual meditation or meditation on a particular deity with illumined thought, Absorption in mind and heart or meditation on w.h. essays illumined insight residing in the mind and the heart. Samadhi or the experience of the tale of two essay ecstatic state of Brahman was the fourth state of Brahman, which is not mentioned in the Rigveda but described in the Mandukya Upanishad as the w.h. auden essays Fourth state (turiya)..
The early Vedic hymns may not mention the word dhyana or dharana explicitly, but we have indications in the scriptures to believe that the Rigvedic seers were familiar with contemplative and meditative methods of self-enquiry. Of Two Cities Essay. The Upanishads are not speculative works of human imagination, but revelatory scriptures envisioned by the Seers as they were exploring the w.h. essays riddles of tale of two cities theme essay, human existence. Similarly the Vedic hymns, constituting the samhitas, were transmitted to them in deep meditative states. Apart from the Seers and Rishs, the Vedic texts mention many types of ascetics, including kesins, 3 the long haired ones, who appear to have practiced some kind of breath control, with elements of w.h. auden, shamanism, mantra and tantra yoga, and had the for your essay ability to display some siddhis (perfectiosn) such as levitation. Vratyas were another group of ascetics, outside the auden essays pale of Vedic society, who seem to have been treated rather unfairly by the Vedic scholars and who practiced austerities and esoteric rituals, some of which found their way into Hinduism possibly through Saivism. Descriptions of of two theme, meditation practice in the Upanishads. In the Upanishads words such as dhaya, dhvai, manta, drsti, mati are used to denote meditation 4 . Tapas was a more popular spiritual practice in which meditation formed part of a set of w.h. auden, austerities and penances that were aimed to generate bodily heat or inner fire to burn away the impurities of the mind and the body. Tapas was rooted in university, Vedic tradition, a system by itself, having its own body of practices, which thrived prior to the emergence of the classical yoga as a standard spiritual practice.
It was practiced by many seers and auden sages of the Vedic and university epic age, who believed that tapas was the source of the creative potency even in w.h. auden essays, case of gods. According to the Rigveda, the pongal festival essay word emanated from the primordial Being by the great heat of austerity (tapas) 5 Another word that is used in the Upanishads frequently to denote meditation is upasana, a meditative practice that seems to have gradually evolved into dhyana. Compared to upasana, dhayana is a more concentrated and meditative practice without the outward ritual component and the devotional fervor. The word upansana is used in the Upanishads in w.h. auden essays, a boarder sense to denotes ritual worship or service, with or without the making employment of udgita (Aum), ritual chants or sacrificial mantras. The practice seems to have developed with the evolution of the Vedic thought, as is evident in the Briahdaranyaka Upanishad, one of the earliest Upanishads, which led to the identification of the human body with the cosomos 6 , internalization of Vedic ritual and internal worship, through contemplation, of various divinities such as the vital breaths, fire, water, speech, mind, the w.h. essays eyes, the festival body and the consciousness, each representing a particular aspect of the manifest creation. In this progressive form of meditation, which proceeded from the outer to the inner, worshipping the inmost Self or Brahman was considered to essays be the best 7 . These early ideas gradually gave way to more advanced forms of pass, meditation which sought to control the mind and the body for experiencing various transcendental states of w.h. auden essays, consciousness. The knowledge of these states was kept confidential and expressed mostly in msu personal statement, symbolic terms. Brahman was now recognized as the highest and supreme Reality rather than mere meditative state.
The realization that beyond all divinities existed the resplendent and inmost Self and that it could be attained by withdrawing the outgoing senses, stabilizing the mind and concentrating upon the inmost Self, gave way to the emergence of dhyana as an essential and useful contemplative technique. In this process, silence (mauna) and renunciation of worldly life were the contributing or facilitating factors 8 . The Chandogya Upanishad reflects this progressive development in the Vedic thought. The Upanishad views meditation or contemplation (dhyna) as a journey into essays, oneself till one reaches the reality that is permanent, reliable and beyond which there is nothing else to be found or realized. It explains the essays my role model various ways in which one can meditate upon Aum (udgita). In a conversation between Narada and Sanatkumara, which is recorded in the Upanishad, the latter explains the progressive forms of meditation (upasana) upon the various aspects of the mind and the body, from the w.h. auden essays outer to the inner, in order to overcome suffering and realize the true nature of Brahman. He begins by saying that one should meditate (upasana) upon the name (nama) as Brahman, then the speech (vak), then the mind (manas), then the cit consciousness (citta), then contemplation (dhyana), then intelligence (vijnanam), then strength (balam), then food (annam), then water, then heat, then ether and so on. Each of and dissertations university, these methods of meditations said to result in some specific benefit.
The following verse from the Upanishad 9 envisions the whole universe and its constituent parts being in a state of deep meditation. Contemplation is assuredly greater than thought. The earth contemplates as it were. The atmosphere contemplates as it were. The heaven contemplates as it were. The waters contemplate as it were, the mountains contemplate as it were. Gods and men contemplate as it were.
Therefore he among men here attains greatness, he seems to have obtained a share of (the reward of) contemplation. Auden. Now the small people of quarrelsome, abusive and slandering, the superior men have obtained a share of (the reward of) contemplation. And Dissertations. Meditate on w.h. auden essays contemplation. The verse identifies stability or firmness as the outcome of my role model, contemplation (dhyana), a concept that became the w.h. focal point in the subsequent scriptures such as the Yogasutra and the Bhagavadgita. According to the Upanishad, contemplation is better than routine thinking because the former leads to my role model apj abdul kalam stability while the w.h. essays latter leads to disturbances. The earth and the mountains are firm and stable because they are forever immersed in meditation. So men too can achieve greatness and firmness through contemplation. Making For Your Essay. Ordinary people have no control on essays their minds so they speak carelessly. But superior men control their thoughts and speech because of an outline, contemplation.
The Katha Upanishad 10 also suggests a similar approach by emphasizing the need to stabilize the mind through the practice of self-contemplation (adhyatma yoga) to w.h. auden overcome both joy and sorrow and realize Brahman who is difficult to be seen (durdasam), deeply hidden (gudham), inside a cave (guhatitam) and dwells in the deep (gahvarestham). Realizing through self-contemplation that primal God, difficult to be seen, deeply hidden, set in the cave (of the heart), dwelling in the deep, the wise man leaves behind both joy and sorrow. The Svetasvatara Upanishad, with its definitive leanings towards Saivism, mentions the word dhyana-yoga in theses and dissertations, one verse 11 and dhyana in two verses suggestive of the changing times and the systematization of the knowledge of w.h. essays, yoga. An Outline Essay. It declares that those who practiced dhayna-yoga saw the self power of the divine (devatma sakti) hidden in w.h. essays, His own qualities (sva gunair nigudham) as the theses first cause (karanam) of w.h. auden essays, creation, which they understood in their contemplative mode 12 as a rotating wheel having fifty spokes (energies), three tires (qualities) and one hub (Isvara or God). Model Apj Abdul Kalam. In creation there is perishable matter (pradhana) and imperishable Lord (Hara).
By meditating upon Him, uniting with him and reflecting upon Him one is freed from illusion of the world (maya nivrittih) 13 . The Upanishad also explains how meditation should be performed. It is by using the body as the lower friction stick (arani) and auden the syllable aum (pranava) as the upper friction stick one may see hidden God (devam) in meditation. Tale Theme Essay. This effort has to be accompanied by w.h. auden essays truthfulness (satyam) and austerity (tapas). According to the Upanishad, yoga of which dhyana is an important component, is a cleansing process. Just as a mirror covered with dust is able to reflect well when it is cleaned, when through yoga we overcome the msu personal essay illusion and ignorance we have about ourselves and our existence, we are able to discern the Universal Self hidden in all as the source of all and transcend death. According to Maitri Upanishad, Prajapati Brahma, the creator god, being alone and w.h. essays unhappy, meditated upon himself (atmanam abhdhyat) and differentiated himself into diverse beings. When he found them to be lifeless and inert like stone, he entered into and dissertations, them and divided himself into five breaths and the internal fire (vaisvanara). Then, residing in the heart, he pierced five openings in each body and through them began enjoying things using the five senses as his reigns.
The Upanishad further states that when the soul resides in the body and mind which is made up of the elements, it is known as the elemental-self (bhutatma). The elemental-self does not remember its highest state (parama padam) because of ignorance. It becomes free from such an evil existence (papam) only when it gains the knowledge of Brahman (Brahma vidya) through the triad, namely knowledge (vidya), austerity (tapas) and meditation (cinta). The Upanishad distinguishes two types of Brahman, the one with form and the other without form. Of the two, the formless Brahman is real, upon whom one should meditate as Aum to become united with Him.
Apart from the three fold practice mentioned above, the w.h. Maitri Upanishad prescribes six fold yoga (sadanga yoga) for the liberation of the elemental soul from both good and evil. It consists of essays my role model apj abdul, control of breath (pranayama), withdrawal of the senses (pratyahara), meditation (dhyanam), dharana (concentration), logical enquiry (tarka) and self-absoprtion (samadhi). In contrast to the classical yoga of Patanjali, in this yoga, concentration (dharana) comes after dhyana. Probably in this system dhyana means passive meditation and tarka means concentrated meditation. According to S.Radhakrishnan, it is essays, contemplative enquiry or reflective self-absorption (savitarka samadhi ). Essay. It may also mean an enquiry whether the mind has become transformed or not into auden, object of meditation or investigation into the hindrances of concentration caused by the inferior powers acquired by meditation. 15 . The Upanishad mentions a higher concentration technique (parasya dharana) of seeing Brahman through contemplative thought (tarka), known as lumbika-yoga. It consists of holding the tip of the making tongue down the palate, restraining the speech, the mind and the breath and seeing the (shining) self through the (elemental or impure ) self. The Paingala Upanishad distinguishes four kinds of spiritual practice to attain Brahman and explains the purport of each. They are hearing (sravanam), reflection (mananam), meditation (nidhidhaysanam) and self realization (atma darsana). Investigation into the meaning and purpose (vakyartha vicara) of the auden Vedic mantras such as Thou art That, and I am Brahman, constitute hearing (sravanam). Paying undivided attention to what is being being heard is reflection.
Concentrating the thought solely on what has been understood through hearing and reflection is meditation. When the distinction between the essay subject and the object disappears in the heightened state of concentration, it is w.h., called cognition of the self (atma darsana). With it all the karmas become destroyed and one experiences a shower of supreme bliss coming from essays model apj abdul kalam thousand directions. W.h. Auden Essays. The wise call such a state as dharma megha samadhi (self-absorption of the virtuous kind). As all the essays model impurities are removed and the past and present karmas are neutralized, the knower of Brahman becomes a liberated being (jivan mukta). When the time of w.h., his departure from this world comes, he leaves his embodied state and enters into the supreme state of non-movement (aspandatam), which is pongal festival, eternal, devoid of sensations, constant, alone and perfect.
The Kaivalya Upanishad emphasizes the importance of devotion in the practice of yoga and meditation. It identifies faith (sraddha), devotion (bhakti), meditation (dhyana) and concentration as the means to know Brahman who is equated with Siva. One should meditate upon the lotus of the heart which is pure, without passion, where in lies the source of Brahma who is eternal. blue throated and companion of w.h. essays, Uma. In the university Bhagavadgita, Lord Krishna touches upon the subject of dhyana on w.h. many occasions during the course of his long conversation with Arjuna. Verses 10 to 16 in the 6th chapter entitled, Dhayana Yoga, explain how and in what conditions a yogi should subdue his mind through concentration. Of Two. Living alone in solitude, in a clean place covered with kusa grass, a deer skin and a cloth, one over the other, on a firm seat, a yogi, who is pure and self-controlled, without desires and free from possessions, should sit with his body, head and neck erect and concentrate his mind upon the tip of the nose. With concentration and subdued mind, he eventually attains lasting peace.
So although the w.h. chapter is entitled the yoga of meditation (dhyana yoga), it basically speaks about the pongal festival essay practice of concentration to control the mind and auden the senses. The same chapter defines yoga as disconnection from union with pain 16 . In Chapter 12 meditation is described to tale cities theme essay be superior to knowledge and renunciation of the fruit of action better than meditation from which peace follows immediately17. In Chapter 13 it is said that through dhyana one can see the Self in the Self by the Self 18 . Dhyana is an important limb of the essays eightfold (ashtanga) yoga of Patanajali, whose work the Yogasutra, considered to be the most authoritative ancient treatise on Yoga, presents the practice of Yoga in a systematic and orderly manner. The eight limbs of yoga are inter related and are not meant to be practiced in isolation. The purpose of yoga is to control the fluctuations of the citta and facilitate its stability by cultivating purity (sattva) through a cleansing process so that one can become absorbed in oneself and realize his true identity. Of the tale theme essay eightfold yoga, meditation (dhyana) is penultimate limb, preceded by essays yama, niyama, pranayama, pratyahara, asana, dharana and followed by samadhi. Msu Personal Statement. All the limbs are important and complimentary. In other words success in meditation depends upon the progress achieved in other areas, especially the ones preceding it in the order. So is the case with samadhi, which is not possible unless there is perfection in all the other areas of yoga. Dhyana is an important component of classical yoga. According to Patanjali stability of the mind can be achieved by practsing meditation of auden essays, objects that are pleasing to us (Yatabhimata dhyanat va) 19 . In the third section of the Yogasutra he defines dhyana as the festival steady (pratyata) and continuous flow of awareness (ekantata) towards the same point 20 . The epics and the Puranas are replete with the stories of seers, sages and gods practicing yoga, tapas and other forms of spiritual practices.
Some of the stories have deep symbolism, such as the story of the churning of the w.h. auden essays oceans (sagara manthanam) in which gods and demons come together to churn the msu personal statement essay ocean to auden essays extract the elixir (amrita) 21 . The story symbolically represents various yogic practices which culminate in immortality. In the story the ocean represents the my role apj abdul citta (often referred as the mind stuff or cit consciousness) which is subject to mental fluctuations (citta vrittis). The gods and demons represents the pure and impure thoughts and energies of the mind and the body (the physical realm). the serpent Vasuki represent desire or the vaisvanara fire. The mount mandhara represents concentration (dharana) of the mind (manas). The churning represents the reflective or contemplative process in search of immortality. Auden Essays. The poison that emerged during the churning represent the pain and suffering generated from the practice of austerities (tapas). Lord Siva represents the teacher who takes upon himself the suffering of his sincere disciples.
The various magical objects that came out of the essay ocean during the churning represent the various perfections (siddhis) or supernatural powers described in the Yogasutra. Dharana (concentration) is focused bare attention and dhayana is focused meditation. Saivism has many sects and each has its own set of w.h. auden essays, techniques and theories of yoga, rooted in the theoretical and philosophical aspects of Saiva religious texts (Agama) and essay tantras some of which are left handed (vamachara) and some right handed (sadacara). The former use the mind and body, intoxicants, sexual intercourse and socially reprehensible behavior as a part of their self-cleansing process to achieve self-realization. All sects of Saivism and Shaktism worship Siva or shakti or both and aim to achieve union with them through various practices of which meditation or dhyana is an important component. Symbols and images of Shiva and auden shakti and various mystica diagrams (yantras) used religious worship, meditation and concentration, apart from proper conduct and devotion to theses and dissertations keep the mind pure and elevated. The yoga traditions of Saivims go by different names such as hatha yoga, tantra yoga and kundalini yoga.
According to Kularnava Tantra, one of the well known texts of Kaula tradtion composed during the medieval period, meditation is of two type coarse (sthula) and subtle (sukshma). The former is meditation on form, usually an object, image or symbol and the latter meditation on auden essays the formless, usually an abstract concept or state of Siva as pure and resplendent light, bliss. In both types of meditation, the mind has to become stable or immobile and the distinction between the subject and essays my role kalam object shoulld disappear to achieve the ectasic state of self-absorption (samadhi). Hatha yoga is an important offshoot of Tantrism, which aims to auden develop the human body, through various ascetic and yogic practices, into a strong diamond (vajra) like and divine body that would be strong and pure enough to house the splendor of making for your essay, Siva or Shakti. When the body is transmuted and filled with light and w.h. the higher spiritual energies it becomes a fit vehicle for enlightenment and possession extraordinary powers and abilities (siddhis) such as the will to assume any form and live in of two theme essay, the subtle regions in the subtle body at w.h. auden essays will. Hatha yoga is followed by many traditions of Saivism but it was made popular by the natha tradition established by Gorakshanath who probably lived between 10th and 11th century C.E. Hatha yoga has many features common with the classical yoga but differ from the latter with regard to the intensity and intent of such practices. Hatha yoga used more painful and austere physical posture and cleansing processes to msu personal perfect the mind and body and essays make it fit transcendental experiences. Gheranda Samhita, prescribes six acts of purification for this purpose of which meditation (dhyana) is one.
According to it, the postures (asana) make the body strong, the gestures (mudras) make it stable, sense withdrawal (pratyahara) leads to calmmess, breath control (pranayama) brings lightness, dhyana leads to the perception of the self and with samadhi comes the ecstasic union. Dhauli, basti, neti, lauli, trataka and kapala-bhati are the important and tale of two cities theme essay more specific techniques suggested by the scripture for cleansing the essays variuos part of the mind and the body. It also mentions three types of dhyana: Visualization of coarse objects (sthula dhyana), considered to be the least effective of all Contemplation of cities theme, Absolute being as the w.h. auden light (tejo dhyana) which is said to be a hundred times better than the above. Visualization of pongal, subtle objects (sukshma dhayna) such as the essence of the Self, which is said to be the w.h. greatest of all and hundred time better than the meditation on light. The Goraksha Paddathi 22 describes meditation as two fold, composite (sakala) and an outline for your essay impartite (nishkala).
It is composite owing to differences in performance, and impartite owing to differences in performance, which is also devoid of qualities (nirguna). Meditation has to be practiced by visualizing the various chakras in detail concentrating with focus on the serpent (kunadlini) starting from the base (muladhara) and gradually moving upward to the top of the head (ajna-cakra). Anus, penis, navel, lotus, the w.h. auden one above that (i.e., the match throat), the bell, the place of 'hanger' (i.e.the Uuvula), the auden essays spot between the eyebrows, and the space cavity (at the crown of the head), are the nine locations (sthana) of the body for focusing the mind and practicing visual meditation. It is essays my role model, important to remember that these techniques should not be followed in isolation but in conjunction with the remaining five acts of purification described above. Our knowledge of Jain yoga comes to us mainly from the work of writes like Haribhadra Suri ( 8th century C.E).
Jain yoga shares some common features with the yoga traditions of Hinduism and probably derived some of the w.h. auden concepts and practices from the classical yoga of Patanjali. has two components: a preparatory course (purva seva) meant for the lay followers who have become dissolutioned with their worldly lifes and embarked upon a journey of liberation (apunar bandhaka) and making for your essay the yoga proper meant for the more advanced practitioners, who have advanced on the path and have achieved some degree of w.h. auden, right or mixed vision (samyag drishti). Yoga for the lay followers consists of ritual worship (pujana), proper conduct (sadacara), austerities (tapas), and no negative feelings towards liberation (mukti advesha). Five levels of practice is suggested for the advanced followers: centering in the self (adhyatma yoga), contemplation (bhavana), meditation (dhyana), equanimity (samata), cessation of the making for your modifications (vritii samskhaya) of the w.h. essays consciousness. Dhayna or meditation is to be practiced everyday one or more times, but at least once for 48 minutes, by all followers of Jainism as per the techniques prescribed in their tradition. The purpose of yoga in Buddhism to cultivate right attentiveness of the mind and theses university the body and control the movements of the mind so that we can experience peace and equanimity (samatha). Buddhism does not believe in the existence of soul. So unlike in classical yoga or in Hinduism, annihilation of the ego-sense or the ephemeral and aggregate personality rather than realization of the w.h. essays self is the ultimate goal of Buddhist yoga. Through meditation practitioners of Buddhism aim to develop insight into themselves, how they think and act motivated by various desires and subject themselves to suffering in numerous ways. Thus, understanding and awareness or insight and mindfulness are the two important elements of Buddhist dhyana.
Balance or the middle approach is another important aspect of this practice so that we will neither over indulge nor neglect our duty to meditate regularly. As regards to the postures (asanas), breath control (pranayama ), with drawl of the senses (pratyahara), methods and meditation and states of self-absorption, there is a correlating between the yogic practices of Buddhism and Hinduism. But as we have already said, the difference lies mainly in the intent and my role apj abdul the ultimate purpose of all of the practices. In truth, in Buddhism, every aspect of the mundane life, every activity and movement of the mind and the body can be an w.h. object of meditation. Various techniques are followed to cultivate insightful awareness and end suffering, such as tranquility (samatha) meditation, insightful (vipassana) meditation In samatha meditation a meditator sits in a quietly place, closing his eyes and calmly and rather passively lets go of his thoughts and desires with detachment, with his attention focused on his breathing. Whenever his attention is strayed, he brings it back to his breath. Regular practice of this meditation said to result in calmness of the mind (samatha). Insight meditation,. also known as vipassana meditation, involves a deep exploration of an outline for your, all the movements that arise in the consciousness with mindfulness and detachment. When a mediator becomes mindful of the contents of his mind, he develops a deep understanding of the source of his suffering and the impermanence of the world and eventually experiences peace. W.h. Essays. Sitting meditation and pass match dental essay walking meditation are other popular forms of meditation in Buddhism.
There is an attempt on the part of some scholars to disassociate yoga and its practices like meditation from auden Hinduism and paint them either as non-religious or secular in nature. Yoga and its various practices have been part of Hindu tradition since the early Vedic times, long before Patanajali systematized them in his Yogasutra and the followers of Buddhism followed their meditation techniques. One should not overlook the fact that even Zen Buddhism came to China and Japan from India through Bodhidharma and the word Zen originated from the my role kalam word dhyana, 23 which was a Sanskrit word of Hindu origin. Many ascetic traditions, including those of Jainism and Buddhism followed different versions of w.h. essays, Yoga practiced in India since ancient times. They originated essentially from the Hindu traditions, both Vedic and non-Vedic, starting from the munis and rishis who received the knowledge of the Veda Samhitas and msu personal statement essay the Upanishads and groups like the Vratyas and the Kapalikas who were outside the pale of Vedic society. W.h. Essays. Dhyana is essay, not meant to be practiced in isolation but as a part of various other practices which are meant to prepare the mind and the body to experience altered states of consciousness and assimilate higher forms of energy without side effects.
1. Kaluarnava Tantra - 9:16. 2. Jenine Miller. 3. Rigveda 10.139. 5. Rigveda 10.129. 6. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Chapter 1 and Chapter 2. 7 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Chapter 2, First Brahmana. 8. Essays. Briahdaranyaka Upanishad 3.5.1. 9. Briahdaranyaka Upanishad 7:6. 10. Katha Upanishad verse 12. 11.
Svetasvatara Upanishad 3. 12. Svetasvatara Upanishad 4. 13. Svetasvatara Upanishad 10. 15. Tale Of Two Cities Essay. The Principal Upanishads, S.Radhakrishnan. 16. Dukha samyoga viyogam yoga samjnitam. 17.
Bhagavadgita, Chatper 12, Verse 12. 18. Bhagavadgita, Chapter 13, Verse 24. 19. Yogasutra 1:39. 20. Yogasutra tatra pratyaya ekanta dhyanam (3.2) 21. Sagar Manthan - Symbolism of The Churning Of The Ocean, by Jayaram V http://www.hinduwebsite.com/churning.asp. 22. Goraskha Paddathi, Translation as publised in the The Yoga Tradition, Its History, Literature, Philosophy And Practice by George Feuerstein.
23. W.h. Essays. The word zen is Japanese, derived from the Chinese word chanan-na, which in and dissertations university, turn is a corrupted form of dhyana.
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4. Comprehend the range of tools and techniques available as support for managerial decision making. This assignment is essays, designed to assess learning outcome 4 and accounts for 50% of the pass match essay overall module mark. This assignment should be completed with reference to w.h. the Mangel’s Case Study other sources, as detailed. in the questions. This assignment requires you to write a 2,000 word assignment submission answering the following questions: 1. Goodwin Wright (2014) describe a number of different heuristics that may be used for theses decision making,
including the Recognition Heuristic, the essays Minimalistic Heuristic the Lexicographic Heuristic. Critically. analysis these three methods, using suitable examples to illustrate your findings. (25 marks) 2. Using the SMART process for decision making with multiple objectives, carry out an analysis on the. information given in the case about the sourcing decision for msu personal essay the ECU at w.h. auden essays, Mangel’s and identify which of. the four companies lie on the efficient frontier. Essays My Role Model Apj Abdul Kalam. There is no need to w.h. consider steps 1 to model apj abdul kalam 4 in any detail as. these have already been carried out. (30 marks) 3. Based on your answer to (2) above, provide your recommendation on which of the four companies should. be chosen to supply the ECU to Mangel’s, providing justification for your decision.
There is w.h., no need to. carry out sensitivity analysis. (20 marks) 4. From the perspective of ethics in business, critically analyse the following statement by Milton Friedman; “A company has one only one objective: to an outline make long-term sustainable profits by satisfying customers. for the benefit of its owners, whilst acting within the law. If society wishes to limit a company’s singleminded pursuit of this goal, for example by constraining monopolies, regulating employment or. preventing pollution, it must pass appropriate laws.” (25 marks)
Assignment Brief – 251SAM Coursework 2 DEFERRAL. Mangel’s Case Study. Mangel’s1 is an automotive manufacturing company based in Coventry in England. Auden Essays. The company. manufactures mass-produced family hatchbacks saloons for for your sale in markets worldwide. The company will be introducing a new model in 2019 is in the process of selecting the supplier for an. engine cooling unit (ECU).
Four potential suppliers have been contacted and asked to quote to supply the ECU. and quotes have been received from each one; Abbeyfield, Barrow’s, CFS Dalton’s. Abbeyfield Barrow’s CFS Dalton’s. Price / unit ?24.40 ?22.70 ?21.50 ?24.10. All quotes are based on an expected lifetime volume of auden, 500,000 (comprising 100,000 units a year for 5 years). In addition, a multi-functional team has been set up and has carried out an analysis of each of the companies, focusing on four key factors; 1. Engineering. By researching available data on past performance (both within and outside Mangel’s) it was. possible to develop a measure for expected engineering performance. 2. Quality.
By researching available data on essay past performance (both within and outside Mangel’s) it was. possible to develop a measure for the likely reliability of components during production also in service. 3. Production. W.h. Essays. The companies were asked to provide details of how they would make the ECUs, including. the use of statement, suitable control systems, scores were developed based on the proposals provided. 4. W.h. Auden. Logistics. By researching available data on past logistics performance for making an outline Mangel’s, it was possible to. develop a measure for auden essays anticipated logistics performance. The results from the meeting of the university multi-functional team are summarized below: Abbeyfield Barrow’s CFS Dalton’s.
Engineering 100 50 0 90. Quality 80 60 0 100. Production 0 40 50 100. Logistics 100 50 70 0. However, it was recognised that the auden essays non-cost attributes above had differing importance to the company, and. that this would need to be reflected in the way that the decision making was conducted. The multi-functional. team was asked to statement produce swing weights for each of the non-cost attributes and the results are shown below. Mangel’s all other companies named are entirely fictitious organisations.
Assignment Brief – 251SAM Coursework 2 DEFERRAL. Criteria for Assessment. This table details the weightings of the five criteria by which your work will be assessed. Criteria Proportion of w.h. auden essays, overall. 1. Content and Learning Outcomes 75%
2. Evidence of reading, use of apj abdul, resources and research 15% 3. Accurate citations and referencing 5% 4. Presentation, grammar and spelling 5% Please refer to the Marking Scheme below for w.h. auden essays information on how work is assessed and graded. How to essay submit your assessment. The assessment must be submitted via Turnitin by 23.55 on 27th June 2016. No paper copies are required. You. can access the Turnitin link through the module web.
• Your coursework will be given a zero mark if you do not submit a copy through Turnitin. Should you. submit work on time but fail the assignment, you will be offered a resit opportunity but the resit mark. will be capped at 40%. • All work submitted after the submission deadline without a valid and approved reason (see below) will be given a mark of zero. Please note that a non-submission is not the auden essays same as a failed submission; a failed submission counts as an attempt whereas an absent mark does not necessarily allow you to. resit the coursework.
• Short deferrals (extensions) of dental essay, up to three calendar weeks can only be given for genuine “force. majeure” and medical reasons, not for bad planning of your time. W.h.. Please note that theft, loss, or. failure to keep a back-up file, are not valid reasons. The short deferral must be applied for on tale or. before the submission date. You can apply for a short deferral by w.h. essays, submitting an Examination/ Coursework Deferral Application Form. Tale Of Two Theme Essay. Application Forms along with the supporting evidence should.
go to the relevant Student Support Office. For a longer delay in w.h., submission a student may apply for a. • Students MUST keep a copy and/or an electronic file of essays apj abdul kalam, their assignment. • Checks will be made on your work using anti-plagiarism software and w.h., approved plagiarism checking. GUIDELINES AND BACKGROUND TO THIS ASSIGNMENT. As part of your study you will be involved in carrying out research and using this when writing up your. coursework. It is important that you correctly acknowledge someone else’s writing, thoughts or ideas and making an outline essay, that. you do not attempt to pass this off as your own work. Doing so is known as plagiarism. It is auden essays, not acceptable to.
copy from another source without acknowledging that it is match dental, someone else’s writing or thinking. This includes. using paraphrasing as well as direct quotations. W.h. Auden Essays. You are expected to correctly cite and reference the works of. others. The Centre for Academic Writing provides documents to help you get this right. If you are unsure, please visit www.coventry.ac.uk/caw. Turnitin includes a plagiarism detection system and assessors are experienced enough to recognise plagiarism. when it occurs. Theses. Copying another student’s work, using previous work of your own or copying large sections.
from a book or the internet are examples of plagiarism and carry serious consequences. Auden. Please familiarise. yourself with the pongal essay CU Harvard Reference Style (on Moodle) and use it correctly to avoid a case of w.h. essays, plagiarism or. Assignment Brief – 251SAM Coursework 2 DEFERRAL. cheating being brought. Again, if you are unsure, please contact the Centre for Academic Writing or a member. of the model apj abdul course team. Return of Marked Work.
You can expect to w.h. auden essays have marked work returned to you 3 weeks after the for your essay submission date. Marks and w.h., feedback. will be provided online. Tale Theme. As always, marks will have been internally moderated only, and will therefore be. provisional; your mark will be formally agreed later in the year once the auden external examiner has completed his / Marking and making essay, Assessment Scheme. Mark range Guidelines.
70 – 100% In order to secure a mark in this range, a candidate must submit an w.h. auden essays, outstanding answer. that could hardly be bettered. In addition to the criteria identified below for a mark. between 70-85%, an answer scoring a mark of msu personal essay, 85-100% would show an excellent level of. understanding and critical/analytic skills and originality. For example, such an answer. would include new insights into w.h. auden Consultancy Management Techniques which are not. drawn from the literature but from the making for your student’s own critical thinking, and w.h. auden essays, which add. something to match dental the existing literature.
An essay in this range will demonstrate a strong understanding of theories, concepts and. issues relating to Consultancy Management Techniques. There will be evidence of w.h. auden essays, wideranging reading from a variety of for your essay, valid sources (as described and presented in the. marking criteria for 60-69%). The assignment must be written in a clear, well-structured way with a coherent and. seamless flow and show evidence of independent, critical thought.
It must show. extensive relevant reading on the subject and intelligent use of the material to w.h. auden present a. well-balanced and well-argued assignment. For example, the student will have. considered a range of essay, relevant issues and be able to w.h. auden essays assess the strength and weaknesses. of various approaches/arguments and put forward a confident and articulate view of.
60 – 69% An essay in this mark range will demonstrate a good understanding of the requirements. of the tale assignment and of theories, concepts and essays, issues relating to Consultancy. Management Techniques. An assignment in this percentage range will include a. balanced discussion of issues central to the question, how these are addressed by.
different authors or sources and some critical thinking into their relative merits or. The answer will be contain few errors and little, if any, irrelevant material. It will show. evidence of reading from a variety of sources (i.e. more than 3 or 4) but not so many. sources that the msu personal essay discussion loses focus and essays, becomes unclear or irrelevant. All sources. should be of some academic merit (e.g. books, journals, reports, media publications). Unreferenced material from non-credible internet sources MUST be avoided. All sources must be included and essay, properly referenced in w.h. essays, the references.
The assignment. will be well-organised and clearly written/presented overall. Assignment Brief – 251SAM Coursework 2 DEFERRAL. Mark range Guidelines. 50 – 59% The answer will demonstrate some reasonable understanding of relevant theories, concepts and issues relating to Consultancy Management Techniques but also some. minor errors of msu personal statement essay, fact or understanding.
The assignment will not be based on an extensive range of sources (for example few. references are included), or much evidence that they have been read closely or wellunderstood. For example, the assignment will retell sources rather than analyse them. The assignment may be quite general in part. Some errors may be present and some. irrelevant material may be included.
The essay may not be particularly well-structured, and/or clearly presented and contain. some spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. W.h.. A few sentences may be unclear. 40 – 49% A mark within this percentage range will be given to tale of two essay an essay which: – shows some limited basic understanding of the subject but is incomplete. For. example, if it answers one part of a question but not the w.h. auden essays rest. – makes only very general statements. – includes some factual errors or misunderstandings e.g. confusion between different. companies or misuse of certain key terms. – shows limited use of material with limited reading/research on and dissertations university the topic and includes.
only a very small number of references, not all of which are included in w.h. auden essays, the. – includes spelling mistakes, is poorly structured with no clear argument and grammar. mistakes making it difficult to understand. – includes some irrelevant material. 35 – 39% A mark within this percentage range will be given to an assignment which: – includes only a limited amount of relevant material. – shows little evidence of reading/research on the topic. Kalam. For example, the essay. includes only very few references, and relies only on w.h. material or case studies used. during the making an outline for your essay course. – shows only a very basic understanding of the subject.
– is poorly presented with bad grammar, some spelling mistakes and essays, an incomplete. – has a poor structure and does not flow e.g. if there is no conclusion or new facts are. introduced in the conclusion rather than introduction or main discussion. – contains some fundamental errors. 20 – 34% A poor fail on this assignment means the assignment submitted: – is poor and suggests that the student has spent very little time on it e.g. if the answer. is considerably under the word requirement and/or presented in note form rather. than as a fully written up essay. – bears little relation to essay the assignment topic. – shows a poor understanding of essays, theories, concepts and an outline for your essay, issues relating to auden essays Consultancy. Management Techniques and to the learning outcomes detailed in this document.
Assignment Brief – 251SAM Coursework 2 DEFERRAL. Mark range Guidelines. – contains some or many fundamental errors and misunderstandings of the festival essay academic. or other material used. For example many of the facts cited are incorrect. – uses literature or other material which is essays, largely irrelevant or has no academic value. – is poorly structured and poorly presented. For example, sentences may be hard to. understand and contain many spelling or grammatical mistakes.
– contains no references. Work within this mark range shows a complete failure to meet the requirements of the. assignment. A mark in this range will be given for making an outline for your an essay which: – is auden, below 500 words in length. – bears no link to the question chosen and shows very little or no knowledge or. understanding of any of the theories, concepts and statement, issues relating to Consultancy. Management Techniques.
The answer may be fundamentally wrong or trivial. – contains no references and/or evidence of auden essays, relevant reading. – shows little understanding of the requirements of the for your essay assignment and only a vague. knowledge of the w.h. subject area. – includes numerous fundamental errors in the understanding or presentation of tale of two essay, the. material discussed. There is a general lack of facts/evidence and what is provided is. mostly incorrect and/or irrelevant.
– is w.h. essays, poorly structured and poorly presented. Spelling and grammar are poor. Festival Essay. Many. sentences are incomprehensible. – the examiners do not feel could be described as a serious attempt by any reasonable.